1. Judicial Review: Crash Course Government and Politics #21
  2. Introduction: Crash Course U.S. Government and Politics
  3. Why American Politics is Screwed Up | Jon Schaff | TEDxRapidCity
  4. Best universities to study Political Science in United States | Free-Apply.com
  5. Can Deliberative Discussions Heal the Political Divide? | Policy Stories
  6. Lecture 1: Introduction to Power and Politics in Today’s World
  7. Unit 4 Review American Political Ideologies and Beliefs AP Government

Judicial Review: Crash Course Government and Politics #21

Hi. Im Craig, and this is Crash Course Government and Politics, and today were going to talk,about the most important case the Supreme Court ever decided ever. No, Stan, not Youngstown,Sheet and Tube Company vs. Sawyer. Although, that is one of my favorites. Loves me some,sheet and tube. And no, its not Ex parte Quirin. Although I do love me some inept Nazi,spies and submarines. And no, it is not Miller v. California. Get your mind out of the gutter,Stan. We could play this game all day, but this episode is about judicial review: the,most important power of the Supreme Court and where it came from. Dont look so disappointed.,This is cool!,[Theme Music],When you think of the Supreme Court, the first thing you think about, other than those comfy,robes, is the power to declare laws unconstitutional. The term for this awesome power, the main,check that the court has on both the legislative and executive branches, is judicial review.,Technically, judicial review is the power of the judiciary to examine and invalidate,actions undertaken by the legislative and executive branches of both the federal and state governments.,Its not the power to review lower court decisions. Thats appellate jurisdiction. Most people,think of judicial review as declaring laws unconstitutional, and that definition is okay.,The legal purist will quibble with you since judicial review applies to more than just laws.,Appellate courts, both state and federal, engage in some form of judicial review, but,were concerned here with the federal courts especially the U.S. Supreme Court. The Court,has the power to review the following: One, Congressional laws a.k.a. statutes! Statutes.,Since judicial review is a form of appellate activity, it involves upholding or affirming,the validity of laws, or denying it, invalidating the law in question. You might think that,the Supreme Court does this a lot, but it doesnt and historically it almost never happened,before the twentieth century. If the court were always striking down congressional statutes,,it would be hard for people to know which laws to follow, and youll remember that one,of the main things that courts do is create expectations and predictability. For instance,,you could predict that I would eventually be punching this eagle!,Another reason why they dont invalidate laws often is that if the Court frequently overruled,Congress, the Court would seem too political and people would stop trusting its judgment.,If the Court has any power at all, it largely stems from its prestige and reputation for,being impartial and above politics. No one has any problems with the Supreme Court decisions, at all.,Two, the Court can also overturn state actions which include the laws passed by state legislatures,and the activities of state executive bureaus, usually the police.,The power to review and overturn states comes from the Supremacy Clause in the Constitution.,Most of the time that the Supreme Court extends civil rights, it comes out of a state action.,A good example is Brown vs. Board of Education where the Court struck down the idea of separate,accommodations being equal in the context of state public schools.,Three, the Court can review the actions of federal bureaucratic agencies. Although, we,usually defer to the bureaucrats expertise if the action is consistent with the intent,of the legislature which the Court usually finds it is. The Court almost never strikes,down Congressional delegation of power to the executive. Although, you might think that it should.,The fourth area where the Court exercises judicial review is over Presidential actions.,The Court tends to defer to the President, especially in the area of national security.,The classic example of the Court overturning executive action happened in U.S. vs. Nixon,where the Justices denied the Presidents claim of executive privilege and forced him,to turn over his recordings relating to the Watergate scandal. More recently, the Court placed,limits on the Presidents authority to deny habeas corpus to suspected terrorists in Rasul vs. Bush.,So, the Supremacy Clause gives the Court the authority to rule on state laws, but where,exactly in the Constitution does the power of judicial review come from? Trick question!,Its not there, go look ahead, look. Ill wait. See, not there. Wow, you went through,that whole thing really quickly. Fast reader.,The crazy thing is that the power of judicial review comes from the Court itself.,How? Lets go to the Thought Bubble.,The Supreme Court granted itself the power of judicial review in the case of Marbury,vs. Madison. You really should read the decision because its a brilliant piece of politics.,The upshot of the case was that Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Court had the,power to review, uphold, and strike down executive actions pursuant to the Judiciary Act of 1789,,and in doing this, to strike down part of that federal law. How he got there was pretty cool.,So, Marbury was an official that President John Adams, at the very end of his term, appointed,to the position of Justice of the Peace. When Marbury went to get his official commission,certifying that he could start his job, James Madison, who was Secretary of State, refused,to give it to him. So, Marbury did what any self-respecting petitioner would do, he went,to the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus that would force Madison to give Marbury his job.,This is what he was supposed to do according to the Judiciary Act of 1789.,What Marshall did was brilliant! He ruled that yes, Marbury had a right to the commission,but that the Supreme Court could not grant his writ because the law directing them to,do so was unconstitutional. This is brilliant for two reasons. First, by the time the time,the case came before the Court, Thomas Jefferson was President. Those of you who remember Crash,Course U.S. History will recall that that less handsome man told you that Jefferson,was a Democratic Republican while Adams, Marbury, and even Marshall were all Federalists.,By ruling against his own party, Marshall made a decision that was favorable to Jefferson,and thus, likely to be supported.,The second move was even cooler. Marshalls ruling took the power of writs of mandamus,away from the Court, making it look weaker, while at the same time giving the Court the,power to declare the law that had granted it the mandamus power in the first place unconstitutional.,So by weakening the Court in this instance, like Daredevil going blind as a kid, Marshall,made it much stronger for the future, like Daredevil getting stronger in the future.,Thanks, Thought Bubble!,So thats where judicial review comes from, but that still leaves many questions. A big,question is, why has this ruling stuck around and hasnt been overturned by other laws or,later court decisions? Another question is, is judicial review a violation of separation of powers?,Some say that its judges making laws and thus an anti-democratic usurpation of the legislatures power.,Lets talk about this rulings longevity first. Remember when I said last time that the Supreme,Court rulings are binding in lower courts? You dont remember do ya? You were sleepin. Wake up!,Well, in general, Supreme Court precedents are binding on future Supreme Courts too because,of the principle of stare decisis, which is Latin for “let the decision stand.” This doesnt,mean that future Supreme Courts can never overturn the decisions of prior Courts, its,just that they try very hard to not do it.,This idea of precedent is one way that judges can be said to make laws. Appellate decisions,are like common law in that they are binding on future courts and constrain their decisions,and because they dont have to be grounded in a specific statute.,Other courts have to follow the higher courts interpretation of the law, and this interpretation,has the effect of redefining the law without actually rewriting the statute.,On the other hand, appellate decisions are technically not common la

Introduction: Crash Course U.S. Government and Politics

اهلا بكم، انا Craig، لست john green (روائي امريكي) لكنني املك بقع على مِرفقي، لدى فأنا أبدو,ذكيا. و نحن بصدد دورة تدريبية مكثفة حول الحُكم و السياسة، و هذه حلقة جديدة! (هُتاف فَرح),لماذا تُعتبر الالعاب النارية قانونية او غير قانونية؟ ربما علينا اكتشاف ذلك. هل سنكتشف ذلك يا ستان؟,على اية حال، لدي سؤال لك: هل تسائلت يوما اين تذهب ضرائبك؟,أو لماذا تشتكي الناس كثيرا من هذا الموضوع؟ او من يدفع من اجل الطريق المُعبّد الذي يمر امام منزلك؟,او لماذا تستعمل الكتب المدرسية الذي تشتغل به في قسم العلوم؟ او لماذا تحتاج لرخصة لتتمكن من القيادة؟,او لتصطاد، او لتصبح حلاقا؟ لطالما اردت ان اقص شعري,عندما كان لدي شعر! هل تسائلت يوما لماذا يجب ان تكون,في ال21 من عمرك لتستطيع شرب الكحول (حسب القانون الامريكي)، بينما فقط 18 سنة لتصوت؟ او لتقامر؟ احيانا ، ان تُصوت,يعني ان تقامر، في الواقع دائما. هل تكون مُرتبكا عندما تسمع الناس تتحدث حول الاخبار، حول,انظمة وول ستريت (بورصة نيويورك), او عن Obamacare (قانون الرعاية الصحية) او حول الدين العام الأمريكي, هل تتسائل لماذا هنالك,قِلّة من انظمة الهاتف الخلوي، و شركات النقل؟ و كيف انه لا بأس لمجموعات التلاميذ,ان يصلوا في المدرسة، لكن الامر غير مُتعارف عليه؟ هل تسائلت يوما,هل ثمة حدود للزمان، و المكان، و الكيفية التي يسمح فيهم للشرطة بتفتيش منزلك؟,او سياتك، او خزانتك، او انت، او صديقك، او جدتك، او صديقة جدتك؟,و هل تعلم لماذا يمكنك الوقوف خارج مكتب حكومي حاملا لافتة و بوقا,مشتكيا حول تدخلات عسكرية، تعتقد انها غير عادلة، بيد ان الشرطة لا يمكن ان توقفك (في القانون الامريكي طبعا),لكنك يمكن ان تُطرد من عملك لقيامك بنفس الامر,هل سبق و ان رُفعت عليك دعوة قضائية، او تم تَغريمك؟ اتسائلت يوما عن الفرق بين ان يتم مقاضاتك,و ان يتم تغريمك؟ هل تسائلت يوما لماذا تقوم الحكومة,بالاشياء التي تفعل؟ بينما لا تفعل اشياء اخرى؟,ماذا سيحدث لو لم نكن نملك حكومة(سلطة) اطلاقا؟ ستكون هنالك اناركية (لاسلطوية),مسدسات جنسية يا ستان؟ هذا على الارجح غير قانوني! لماذا هو قانوني؟,و الاهم من هذا كله: هل فكرت يوما كيف بمقدورك تغيير الامور التي تبدو غير صحيحة، او التي لا تعجبك فقط؟,تبدو غير صحيحة، او التي لا تعجبك؟,حسنا، كان ذلك اكثر من مجرد سؤال وحيد, و بالتأكيد لا يوجد جواب واحد لكل هذه الاسئلة,جواب واحد لكل هذه الاسئلة, و لكن باستثناء طريقة ما، يوجد جواب وهو: دراسة الحكم (السلطة) و السياسة,وهذا بالتحديد ما سنتحدث بشأنه اليوم, و هذه السلسلة باكملها : دورة تدريبية مكثفة في علم الحكم و السياسة,في علم الحكم و السياسة,[ موسيقى ],فلنبدأ بفعل ما يفعله البشر عندما يواجهون اسئلة معقدة,لا يقدرون الاجابة عليها. سنجيب على واحدة بسيطة. في هذه الحالة. ما هي الحكومة و,ما هي السياسة؟ لماذا احتاج لمعرفتهم؟,الحكومة هي مجموعة من القواعد و المؤسسات، التي وضعها الناس، لي يستطيع العمل مع بعضهم,و كمجمتع موحد، احيانا تسمى دولة، او وطن، او بلد.,و ساستعمل هذه المفرذات بشكل تبادلي …,لذا سندرس علم الحكم بنية ان نصبح مواطنين صالحين.,بدراسة علم الحكم سيمكننا من أن نشارك بطريقة مدروسة . أي أحد يمكنه المشاركة,لكنه لا يفعل ذلك بذكاء أن يأخذ قليلا الجهد، وهذا هو السبب في أننا بحاجة إلى أن نتعلم,حول كيفية عمل حكومتنا. السياسة هي مختلفة قليلا. السياسة,فترة استخدمنا لوصف كيفية توزيع السلطة في الحكومة. وفى الولايات المتحدة هو في الأساس,يصف قرارات حول من يتولى منصبه وكيف يمكن للأفراد والجماعات جعل تلك,قرارات. بعد السياسة هو الكثير مثل التالية,الرياضة في أن هناك فائز وخاسر والناس يقضون الكثير من الوقت في التنبؤ,من سيفوز وتحليل لماذا الفائز فاز وخسر الخاسر.,قد تؤثر على نتيجة الانتخابات الخاصة بك الحياة أكثر من نتائج لعبة رياضية,بالرغم من ذلك. إلا إذا كنت القمار – والتي قد تكون غير قانونية.,الحكومة هو المهم حقا. كل مولود يولد في أمريكا هو تلقائيا مواطن، و,اختيار العديد من الناس ليصبحوا مواطنين كل عام بحيث يمكن أن يكون لها رأي في الحكومة.,الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية هي جمهورية، وهو ما يعني أننا ممثلي المنتخب ليحكم لنا، و,الديمقراطية، وهو ما يعني أن يسمح للمواطنين كي يشارك. هذه القدرة على المشاركة,شيء نأخذ أمرا مفروغا منه، ولكن لا ينبغي لنا. يخبرنا التاريخ أن ذلك مشاركة المواطنين,هو الاستثناء وليس القاعدة. لكن نحن لن ننظر في التاريخ. من الذى,لديه الوقت؟ هذا ما هي دروس التاريخ لمع أن الرجل الآخر.,حتى طريقة واحدة يمكن للناس أن يشاركوا في الحكومة من خلال التصويت. وكثير من الناس سوف اقول,لكم أن هذا الى حد كبير الطريقة الوحيدة يمكننا المشاركة في الحكومة والسياسة،,ولكن انهم على خطأ. وأنا أحب لافتا إلى عندما يكون الناس مخطئون. دعنا نذهب إلى فقاعة الفكر.,بالتأكيد، عندما وضع علامة على الاقتراع، كنت مشاركا في العملية السياسية، ولكن هناك الكثير غيرها,الأشياء التي يمكنك القيام به ليكون مواطنا فاعلا. يمكنك الاتصال ممثليكم واقول,لهم ما هو رأيك حول قضية سياسية. اعتاد الناس على القيام بذلك عن طريق كتابة الرسائل,أو إرسال البرقيات، ولكن الآن أنها تميل إلى الاتصال أو إرسال البريد الإلكتروني، وعلى الرغم من أن هناك شيء,مثل رسالة غاضبة جيدة من الطراز القديم. يمكن أن يعمل الناس لحملات أو جمع المال,أو إعطاء المال. ويمكن أن عرض علامات الفناء أو ملصقات. ويمكن أن حشد المرجح,الناخبين، في محاولة لإقناعهم بالتصويت أو حتى تدفعها إلى صناديق الاقتراع في يوم الانتخابات.,يمكنك المشاركة في الحياة السياسية عند الإجابة استطلاع للرأي العام. أو عند إرسال بريد,رسالة إلى المحرر أو تعليق على الانترنت المادة. يمكنك المشاركة في السياسة عندما,لك بلوق، أو tumbl، أو تجعل شريط فيديو يوتيوب، أو تويتر. أعتقد حتى يوتيوب التهم تعليق.,الأول! من أي وقت مضى إلى مسيرة أو مظاهرة أو عقد,التوقيع أو يلبس تي شيرت مع شعار على ذلك، أو مناقشتها في الانتخابات التشريعية القادمة في حفل العشاء,الطاولة وحاول إقناع والديك الذين للتصويت لصالح؟ كنت قد شاركت في,العملية السياسية. وإذا كنت قد تشغيل فعليا لمكتب قمت,شارك، حتى لو كنت لم تفز، و إذا فعلت الفوز، التهاني، الآن على العودة,للعمل. يجب أن نعرف هذا. ولكن ربما كان الشيء الأكثر أهمية الذي,يمكن القيام به للمشاركة في الحكومة والسياسة على حد سواء أسهل وأصعب.,تصبح أكثر تعليما! يمكن لأي شخص أن يكون مواطنا، ولكن ليكون مواطنا صالحا يتطلب فهما,كيفية عمل الحكومة، وكيف يمكن أن نشارك. فهو يتطلب المعرفة والجهد ولدينا,للقيام بذلك لأن خلاف ذلك نحن في نهاية الأمر أدى بدلا من أن القادة. نتعرف على,السياسة لأن المعرفة هي أفضل دفاع لدينا ضد الناس عديمي الضمير الذين سيستخدمون لدينا,الجهل للحصول منا أن نفعل الأشياء التي نريد وليس ما نعتقد أنه ينبغي القيام به.,شكرا، الفكر فقاعة. وهذا هو بلدي أولا يعتقد فقاعة رواية! يا هلا! شباب,هي متعة. هذا هو متعة. ذلك أن ما نحن فيه يأتي فيها على مدار,من هذه السلسلة سوف ننظر في عمق في الحكومة الأميركية والسياسة.,سنتحدث عن أشياء مثل هيكل وظيفة من فروع الحكومة،,تقسيم السلطة بين الوطني الحكومة وحكومات الولايات، ما,الأحزاب السياسية، ما يفعلونه، وكيف فهي تختلف عن جماعات المصالح.,سنقوم بدراسة الدور الذي يلعبه الإعلام في الحكومة والسياسة، وكيف أن النظام القانوني,والمحاكم تعمل وكيف أنها تحمي المدني الحقوق والحريات المدنية.,سنلقي نظرة على الأيديولوجيات السياسية: ما يعني عندما تقول أنك ليبرالي أو,المحافظ أو التحررية أو اشتراكيا أو فوضوي – حسنا نحن ربما لن,الحديث عن الفوضى لأن هذا النوع من رفض الحكومة. مرة أخرى، الجنس مسدسات،,ستان؟ لا يمكن … قضية حقوق التأليف والنشر.,سوف أعتني بذلك. ANARCHY – WOOO! انا لدي من المعروف أن نفعل ذلك من وقت لآخر.,سنحاول فهم القوى التي وتشكيل الحكومة والسياسة الأمريكية,اليوم. وسنعمل من أجل أن تصبح أكثر تشارك وتطوير المعرفة لدينا حتى,نحن جعل الحكومة أكثر استجابة و حياتنا السياسية أكثر شمولا.,وبحلول نهاية هذه السلسلة – والواقع قبل نهاية – سوف نفهم كيف,تعمل حكومتنا وكيف يمكنك ان تجعل يعمل على نحو أفضل بالنسبة لك ومجتمعك.,ليس فقط سوف تكون قادرا على الإجابة على أكثر من الأسئلة لقد بدأت هذه الحلقة مع،,ولكن سوف تصبح، إذا كنت تدفع الانتباه واعتقد لنفسك، وأكثر انخراطا و,مواطن النشط. وقد يكون لديك لحية – إذا كنت لا يحلق.,الأسبوع القادم سوف نتحدث عن الكونجرس، كيف كان يعمل، وماذا يفعل، وعندما يفعل أي شيء.,شكرا لمشاهدة، وأنا أراكم الأسبوع المقبل. وهذا هو بلدي أول حلقة دراسية مكثفة!,هل نحن من بوبرس ستان؟ أنا رمي فقط م … wooohoo! ضجة! Wooo! ضجة!,وينتج تحطم الحكومة المقرر والسياسة بالتعاون مع برنامج تلفزيوني استوديوهات رقمية. الدعم,ليأتي تحطم دورة حكومة الولايات المتحدة من Voqal. Voqal تدعم المنظمات غير الربحية التي تستخدم,التكنولوجيا ووسائل الإعلام لتعزيز العدالة الاجتماعية. تعلم المزيد عن مهمة ومبادراتهم,في Voqal.org. وقدم دورة مكثفة من قبل كل من هؤلاء الناس لطيفة.,شكرا لكم على المشاهدة. يمكن أن نسميه ملعب كريغ، ستان؟ لا؟ تحطم دورة كريج؟ … لا يمكن ترجمة : lama althaqafi

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Why American Politics is Screwed Up | Jon Schaff | TEDxRapidCity

I dont think I have to do a lot of work,to get you to understand to appreciate,the underlying thesis behind the the,title of my program taught that American,politics has screwed up whether its all,trite people marching in Charlottesville,or anti-fog people people who dress up,in black and commit acts of political,violence to fight fascism I think we all,have a sense that our politics is too,boisterous to allow too combative too,negative its bitterly partisan unable,to get things done heres a way to,graphically represent that what youre,looking at is from the good people at,Pew Research is a chart of ideological,distribution of our two political,parties so if you look at the ones you,know 1994 in 2004 surely the Republicans,are on the right Democrats are on the,left but theyre actually quite close to,each other and there is quite a lot of,overlap ideologically between the two,parties then you look at 2017 and what,we see is the literal polarization of,the American public now there are a lot,of reasons why this is the case in fact,weve heard some of those reasons today,but Im going to talk about one,political reason that might be,counterintuitive our politics is,bitterly partisan not because our,parties are too strong but because our,parties are too weak interest groups and,money have too much power in our,politics not because we regulate them,too little but that we regulate them too,much now to tell this story I have to,kind of give you a history of American,political parties so lets start the,beginning if you would have gone back to,the mayor confounding a lot of our,founders like George Washington were,skeptical of political parties and his,famous farewell address wash and says,beware the spirit of party well why Ill,give you an example Im originally from,the state of Minnesota which means,because of that reason and because Im a,masochist,Im a big fan of the Minnesota Vikings,and so when Brett Favre was playing for,the hated Green Bay Packers we said we,hate you Brett Favre,youre the worst we want you to lose,every game and maybe get injured a,little bit but then what happened well,he put on the purple number four we love,you Brett Favre,youre the best whenever game eternal,health and this is what Washington meant,joining a political party is sort of,like joining a sports team its,irrational do I root for it because its,good or because its mine and all my,loyalties are split am i rooting for,this thing politically because its good,for the country or because its good for,the political party so political parties,are bad so naturally the first thing we,do is we form political parties the,first political party system organizes,around the personality of Thomas,Jefferson they go by many names,eventually they become the modern,Democratic Party so Im going to call,them the Democrats the other party forms,around the noted hip-hop artist,Alexander Hamilton they call themselves,the Federalists and if you think our,politics are bitter if youre probably,aware that in 1803 Thomas Jeffersons,vice president Aaron Burr shot and,killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel and,you could say with the death of Hamilton,that was the death of the Federalist,Party within a decade or so the,Federalist cease to be an important,force in American politics and so by the,19-teens we essentially have one party,politics its everythings a democratic,part party and when you have one party,politics its like you have no party,politics the divisions have to occur,based on something else and so what we,start to see is in order to make an,appeal to the people you cant say what,party I am because theres only one,party people have to start making,extreme appeals like making all sorts of,crazy promises that you know youre,never going to be able to actually,fulfill or maybe find the unpopular,minority in the community and start,attacking them so the majority will be,on your side maybe this sounds familiar,to you and this sort of comes to a head,in the 1824 election in the 1824,election for president there were not,one not two not three but four credible,candidates for President Andrew Jackson,John Quincy Adams Henry Clay and William,Crawford who had been Secretary of,Treasury and war and previous,administrations Welby,because there are four credible,candidates they divided the vote four,ways and no one got a majority of,electoral college and so by the,Constitution the election went to the,House of Representatives,well John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay,had one thing in common they hated,Andrew Jackson so and what the,Jacksonians would end up calling the,corrupt bargain Adams went to clay and,said clay you throw your support behind,me in the house Ill become President of,the United States Ill choose you as my,secretary of state which back then it,was like saying youre my successor and,well ace out that no-good Andrew,Jackson and thats how John Quincy Adams,became the sixth president it states now,he got his comeuppance four years later,when mano-a-mano between Jackson and,John Quincy Adams Jackson beat him like,a drum thats how Andrew Jackson became,the seventh president of United States,and Jackson had this key political,operative from the state of New York he,had been governor of New York he would,end up being Jacksons second vice,president and eventually eighth,president it states you know who Im,talking about Martin Van Buren,thats a nice hairstyle and Van Buren,start looking at the politic the a of,the 1820s 1830s and said the problem of,our politics is that we dont have,strong political parties what we need is,two and only two political parties and,what Van Buren started to theorize is,what a hundred years later a little over,a hundred years later theres a,political scientist named Anthony downs,you dont need to remember that thats,theres no quiz and he wrote a book,called an economic theory of democracy,and what Downes theorized and what Van,Buren theorized without the cool chart,you might remember this this is a normal,curve but giving you nightmares from,high school math class and what they,both theorize is that political opinions,are distributed normally its therefore,most people are in the middle and if you,have two and only two political parties,the parties will have an incentive to,run towards the middle because thats,where most people are and this creates,moderation and helps us avoid extremism,the other thing is is we tend to think,Republicans think this Democrats think,that but thats not really true is it,there are more progressive and more,moderate Democrats theyre more moderate,and more conservative Republicans really,what you need to do in this system in,order to be competitive is you need to,form,a big broad-based coalition party you,need to show people who have superficial,differences that they have enough in,common that they should join together,for a common cause think of Franklin,Roosevelt in the famous New Deal,coalition of the 1930s where he showed,urban laborers rural farmers and racial,minorities that despite their,differences they had enough in common,that they should join the Democratic,Party and they did right and so what we,start creating the in the 1830s is what,I call the party system right a system,of very strong political parties in this,system brought us good things Ive,already talked about moderation the,avoidance of political extremism a,government built based on coalitions of,parties parties who are big coalitions,which means theres moderation within,the parties we get more effective,government because when you think about,it most electoral offices in the United,States are legislative offices look at,the US Congress there are 535 House and,Senate members of Congress blowing one,president well what is the job of a,legislator a job of the legislature is,to take people with superficial,differences show them that they have,enough in common to join a coalition in,order to pass a piece of legislation,look what is successful electoral II is,tied to what is successful

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Best universities to study Political Science in United States | Free-Apply.com

hi everybody have you ever seen about,learning political science in the United,States,its unbelievable opportunity to try by,the way of studying today Ill help you,was applying in political science,program but the eithers is the fast way,to do it I will use a free applied calm,if you have never wizard said before I,recommended you to do it because its,for free is a world largest university,admission system its comfortable,interface with a lot of filters is,finding your best University program,its directly live chat with any,universities and today I will show how,to apply in political science program,its easier and fast what is most,important is for free so lets get,started first of all I choose the,country in which Im on the side is the,United States then I start write a,program until it the free apply system,will direct me to the all the search,result with selected filters I won fun,and bachelor degree also I can choose a,fill limits like how much youre ready,to pay and also can do the city in which,you want to study for example New York,here until all the universities with,selected filters in case if you know,exactly in which universe do you want to,study you can type the name here I can,select one from the all of the search,results which were like mo so lets,start with this one we open it here,consider photos of the university like,the main information about it all,problems in bachelor degree and in the,right side you can see the minimal fee,or one program in this university I like,it and our latest so I will add it to my,wish list and now Im go back and two,days and this universe to my wish list,and now I can click apply now the system,requires you to sing in article 18,account in fact you first on this side I,already have an account so Im in the,system and I redirected to the request,form so here I knew chilled again a,program in which I want to study,slightly tickle of science I want to,read more about it so I will click about,Kyra cant is it is three years of study,full-time study mode and language of,instructions more about program about,TOEFL certificates and other documents,which you need to apply and now Im go,back and choose it,here is a system advise you to send some,a question if its important you can,choose one two or all or all so you can,write your personal question for example,does the University of word news based,scholarship and now Im click Next here,into the university in which you want to,send a letter is like our first,University and its a similar ones here,I want tools only a three universities,you know it will be the first two also,you can open each of the universities,and look the main information about it,photos and programs but now Im gonna go,next if there are example of a letter,which will sent here you can correct a,question or add some more information if,its important and now Im click send,request so in the left side you can see,almost requests to the University also,here you can see the answer for the,letter and in this forum you can submit,your documents if its important,what about answer for later is dependent,University their timetable and people,usually is from one day to week and if,you want beltline you will get your,letter on your email address which you,write is registration so dont worry to,miss your answer there is all what I,wanted to tell today like this video and,subscribe if you liked it sense for,watching see you next time bye

Can Deliberative Discussions Heal the Political Divide? | Policy Stories

foreign,that American society is bitterly,divided with Americans deeply,distrustful of those with different,political beliefs it often feels like,were living in different realities,talking past each other and unable to,agree on even the most basic facts in,September of 2019 we ran an experiment,to see if something could be done to,heal our political divides and reduce,animosity the experiment was called,America in one room and it brought,together 523 Americans to a conference,center in Dallas Texas these Americans,were selected randomly and were,demographically and politically,representative of all registered voters,a representative control group of 844,Americans was also randomly selected but,did not go to Dallas the participants,were given briefing materials with,expert opinions from both the left and,the right on the pros and cons of major,policies and immigration Health Care,taxes the environment and foreign policy,participants were then randomly assigned,to groups of 10 to 12 people and with a,moderator engaged in face-to-face,discussions on the policy issues the,deliberations spanned three days the,objective for each group was not to come,to a consensus or to change anyones,mind it was simply to deliberate on the,merits of various policy proposals by,listening and sharing opinions could,this kind of deliberation lead ordinary,citizens to re-examine their thinking,could it humanize the so-called other,side and help people understand other,perspectives to answer these questions,we surveyed the participants and the,control group just before and just after,the deliberations as well as a year,later right before the 2020 general,election,our findings Were Striking while the,control group as expected saw basically,no change in its positions over the,three days of deliberation the,participants did the most polarizing,proposals whether from the left or the,right generally lost support and a,number of more Centrist proposals moved,to the foreground,crucially proposals that were farther on,the right typically lost support from,Republicans and proposals that were,farther on the left lost support from,Democrats as an example support among,Republicans for reducing the number of,refugees allowed to resettle in the U.S,dropped from 66 percent to 34 percent,while support among democrats for a 15,minimum wage fell from 83 percent to 59,Republican support for using taxes to,reduce greenhouse gas emissions went up,from 33 percent to 44 percent while,Democratic support for the trans-pacific,partnership Grew From 66 percent to 88,percent whats more Republicans and,Democrats reported more positive,feelings towards members of the opposite,party after the experiment among,Republicans with the most strongly held,policy beliefs attitudes towards,Democrats improved from a five on a 100,point scale to 29. for Democrats with,the most strongly held policy beliefs,attitudes towards Republicans improved,from 8 to 24. these Short Run results,were encouraging but did they stick when,we ran surveys a year later in the midst,of a heated presidential campaign and,the grief and isolation of the covid-19,pandemic the answer we found was,complicated a year later our,participants had for the most part,reverted back in their policy views and,in their feelings towards those of the,opposite party,but one result stood out participants,who had little interest or knowledge of,politics and policy were a year later,more civically engaged than comparable,individuals in the control group by,giving them a space to engage in,respectful and reason political dialogue,to be heard without being drowned out by,forcefully held beliefs we enabled,previously disengaged Americans to,become more civically engaged a year,later they were more likely to feel that,their political views are worth,listening to more likely to know who,controls the house and the Senate and,more likely to vote more research is,underway right now to see if experiments,like America in one room can be scaled,up perhaps online and even with an AI,moderator what if people had the,opportunity to deliberate on policy,issues with different people more,regularly to debate and disagree without,being disagreeable,our work suggests that such experiences,can help reduce political animosity and,encourage greater Civic engagement,[Music],[Applause]

Lecture 1: Introduction to Power and Politics in Today’s World

– Hello everybody and welcome.,How is everybody today?,Great.,Well, Im delighted to have the opportunity,to be giving the DeVane Lectures.,And the DeVane Lectures, as you can tell,,from looking around you double as being,a regular Yale course for credit,that students can take for credit,and lectures that are open to the general public.,These lectures are going to deal with power and politics,in todays world and by todays world,,Im gonna mean the 30 years since 1989,and the 30 years since 1989 are,and have been an incredibly tumultuous period,of very great change.,And thats for xxx unusual.,For instance, if you compare it to the previous 40 years,in most of the advanced capitalist democracies,,they were a period of relative stability,after World War II.,In most countries, it was an era of great prosperity,even countries recovering from World War II,like the countries of Europe were being rebuilt,with Marshal Plan aid and it was a period,,partly for demographic reasons,,of very great political stability,for people who grew up in that period.,Internationally, as well, it was a period,of very great stability because partly,,because of the Cold War.,Its true we had episodes like the Cuban Missile Crisis,and the Vietnam War but as the Vietnam War indicates,,most of the conflicts within the Cold War,were played out as you like, as proxy wars,in other parts of the world.,From the point of view of the citizens,of the Western democracies,,except for those who are actually fighting in Vietnam,,it was a far-off war that didnt have a great impact,on the stability of peoples lives,and that is very different from what has been experienced,since 1989; time, if you like, has speeded up a great deal.,Weve seen incredible change in three decades.,And those are the three decades,that I am going to be exploring.,One pedagogical challenge that presents,is that for some of us in this room,,the last three decades are etched into our minds,as like it was yesterday.,We experienced them in real time,but there are many people in this room,who were never born until long after that.,For them, whether its the last 40 years,or the last 60 years, 40 years or the 60 years,after World War II, its all history.,One of the first things I need to do,and Im gonna try and make this a regular practice,during the course is I need to take everybody back,and to make people understand who werent there,what it was like and then to remind people,whove lived through it of things,that they might have forgotten.,So lets just go back to 1989 in Berlin.,- The Berlin Wall, once it divided East from West,,now on its way to becoming an artifact of history.,(upbeat music),This the CBS Evening News.,Dan Rather, reporting tonight from in front,of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany.,Good evening.,These are the sights and sounds,of the continuing celebration of Germans,about the symbolic, not the literal, at least, not yet,but the symbolic tearing down of the Berlin Wall.,Its impossible to completely describe,how deeply Germans feel about whats happened here.,East German border guards tonight,were literally tearing down portions of the wall itself,,not the whole wall but portions of the wall,to make it easier for East Germans to come into West Berlin,and as the joyous hordes of Berliners,were still streaming through the wall,,the East German communist government said,they can come and go permanently,,they can come into West Berlin, have a look,and then come back home again,with no special documents required.,Today, what goes through your mind and heart?,- Well, of course, I look back to all those years,of hardship for the families even more than,for the country as a whole and its moving,to see families getting together again.,My feeling is that we are very close,to an end of the artificial division of Berlin,and I also believe we are close to the point,where the parts of Germany will become much closer together.,This, of course,,only within the reasonable European framework.,Anyone know who that was?,Xxx Billy Braun, the former Chancellor of Germany,who actually would die a couple of years,,three years after that,,so he was one of the celebratory crowd at that time.,So that might give you a little sense of the shock,and the enthusiasm that people experienced,in the latter days of 1989.,This had been a period in which the Soviet Union,was clearly losing its grip on Eastern Europe.,It wasnt just Germany.,Right across Eastern Europe, all through 1989,,there had been these massive resistance movements developing,and the Soviet Union was losing,,it was clearly not in a position to intervene,in these countries.,And they were shedding totalitarian control,for the first time in decades.,Of course, the great exception,which we will be talking about next week was in China,where demonstrations in Tiananmen Square,that June had come out, meant a very different result,but in most of the world, after 1989,,it seemed like democracy was on the March.,We saw the democratization of all,of the former Soviet Union bloc countries in Eastern Europe,even places like South Africa which had been mired,in a bitter conflict for decades transitioned in,the early 1990s to a multi-racial democracy.,The problems in Northern Ireland finally settled,with the Good Friday Accords in 1997.,Even Israel-Palestine which had been one,of the most intractable conflicts for decades and decades,seemed to be moving towards a resolution in the early 1990s.,There were the Oslo Accords, the PLO,and the Israeli government were negotiating a settlement.,Anyone who was in Israel or the West Bank,at that time anticipated that there was going,to be a settlement until the assassination,of one of the key protagonists, Yitzhak Rabin,in November of 1995.,And that would lead to an unraveling,of that potential settlement but in the early 1990s,,its really I think difficult to overstate,the enthusiasm for change.,This is the period when Francis Fukuyama,was talking about the end of history,by which he meant that liberal democracy,was sweeping the world.,In fact, at the turn of the 21st century,,we finally went from a world in which most countries,in the world were not democracies by most standard measures,to a world in which most countries were democracies,by most standard measures.,So its not surprising that one would have had the kind,of enthusiasm that Fukuyama had at that time,and that was almost,,whats the word?,Just snowballing across so much of the developed world.,Enormous confidence in democratic capitalism,and enormous confidence in the idea,that many people were gonna be lifted out of poverty,and that the world was heading,for a kind of benign equilibrium,,as an economist would say, Fukuyamas end of history idea.,now lets fast-forward three decades,and lets stay in Germany and heres a very different thing,to look at.,(speaking in foreign language),(audience cheering),(speaking in foreign language),So hes a leader of the Alternative for Deutschland,,far-right anti-immigrant,,anti-system political party and what he is celebrating,is that they have crossed the 5% threshold.,This is the AFP here on this graph.,Germany has a 5% threshold to get seated,in the parliament so if you dont get 5%, you get no seats,,they hadnt gotten 5% before and now they had won 5%,and so they saw themselves as getting a foothold,in German electoral politics for the first time.,Germany, in 2017 was coming out of a situation,in which there had been a grand coalition,between the SPD which is the left,of said Social Democratic Party and the right of center CDU,,Christian Democratic Party led by Angela Merkel.,And the SPD were very unhappy,,they had been in this grand coalition for a long time,and they found that they were paying a huge price,with their supporters.,They were getting less and less of the vote,for reasons well talk about later in the course,and they announced that they were not gonna participate,in a grand coalition again and they were gonna go,into opposition and re

Unit 4 Review American Political Ideologies and Beliefs AP Government

all right welcome back unit for American,political ideologies and beliefs lets,get right to it all right so we have,American political culture so were,talking here about the shared values,that most Americans together have so,were not making a distinction based on,the ideology or party most Americans,believe in things like liberty,individualism you have two lists here in,front of you so Liberty were talking,about freedom individualism you could,also say personal responsibility or the,idea that each one of us is ultimately,responsible for his or her own self,equal opportunity but not necessarily,equality of results free enterprise,meaning that we have some kind of a,market system market-based economy in,which people are allowed to choose what,they want to do with their time with,their resources where they want to work,what they want to sell how they want to,sell it those sorts of things again,ideas from the beginning of the year,rule of law no person is above the law,and a government that only has powers,that are given to it by the Constitution,through the people all right so were,gonna start talking about ideologies and,so before we get to that is political,socialization this is the process by,which people acquire their political,beliefs in ideology so essentially why,is one person liberal while another is,conservative the answer is often has to,do with their political socialization,and family and parents is the number one,most important source of a persons,political socialization now some terms,that go along with that we have three,here that are highlighted life cycle,effects this is where people focus on,different issues at different points in,their life so young people tend to be,more in favor of freedom whereas older,people people with children and older,than that they tend to also focus more,on security and safety that kind of,thing generational effects now were,looking at how people vote and their,political beliefs for people from,different generations so were talking,about Millennials as a group including,when theyre young and then as they get,older and older and older so this would,be talking about going back Silent,Generation baby boomers Gen X and,Millennials each having distinct things,I have effect,their political beliefs and development,and globalization the idea that there,has been this interchange between,American ideas ideals being brought to,the world and ones from the rest the,world being brought to the US alright so,we have our three main ideologies that,we discuss in the EP gov conservative,liberals and libertarians conservatives,typically favor traditional American,values respect for authority law and,order and national defense as a basic,snapshot liberals on the other hand,prefer or favor an active role for the,government in regulating the economy and,that it should also have an active role,in promoting equality libertarians tend,to want the least amount of government,possible they want to promote individual,freedom and think that should only be,limited when it impedes on another,persons rights alright so lets look at,conservative ideology a little bit more,closely,conservatives typically favor increased,defense spending more police more,focused on punishing crime this is part,of that favoring social order over,social freedoms often conservatives,believe that the government should,protect traditional values that could be,religious family values even if this,intrudes on individual freedoms so along,with that idea conservatives are more,likely to support vouchers to attend,private schools so again taking money,from taxpayers from a state and using it,to help people attend private schools of,their choice and theyre fine with that,being a religious school as well so,again less concerned with Establishment,Clause issues more concerned with,traditional values conservatives,typically favor less economic regulation,and less government involvement to,promote social and economic equality so,typically arent quite as typically,dont favor can just say that Medicaid,and welfare food stamps programs like,that typically not supported by,conservatives very much and,conservatives favor supply-side,economics so this is the idea that to,stimulate the economy the government,should cut,taxes to encourage businesses to grow,and then taxpayers will be able to have,more money to spend more money since,they wont be paying as much in the way,of taxes,alright liberals favor less defense,spending favor protecting the rights of,the accused so rather than worrying,about making sure every guilty person is,punished more concerned with making sure,that the fourth fifth and sixth,amendments arent violated and seven,they found matter believed that the,government should not regulate private,personal matters so this is social,freedom social Liberty so things like,being pro-choice whereas conservatives,are usually pro-life liberals support,public education spending oppose,vouchers,especially when vouchers can be used to,attend religious schools so they often,make a claim that the purpose of those,vouchers is really to undermine public,education and to secretly promote,religious education as what a liberal,might say liberals often favor,government spending to promote social,and economic equality so favor,entitlement programs favor things like,Medicaid and food stamps and Welfare,favor possibly even expanding those and,they typically are supporters of,Keynesian economics which is the idea,the government should stimulate the,economy by spending money so where,supply siders conservatives say cut,taxes to stimulate the economy,Keynesian typically focus on government,spending to do so libertarians want the,least government involves they typically,favor a dramatic reduction in defense,spending decriminalization of so-called,victims crimes which could include,things like drugs and other things,protecting the rights of the accused,also supported by libertarians often,believe that the government should not,regulate private personal matters,so again social freedoms social Liberty,favor privatization of education and,expanded school choice and little or no,regulation beyond protection of property,rights so along with this minimal,government then there would be minimal,taxation but the government should not,actively attempt to stimulate the,economy so they want low taxes but they,dont think tax should be cut,in order to move the economy they should,just simply be low taxes alright the,Democratic party platform generated,lines more closer to liberal positions,while the Republican platform aligns,some more conservative positions and,policy trends over at a certain time,often reflect the success that,conservatives or liberals are having,within political party so we kind of go,through phases of more liberal or more,conservative times and monetary policies,to the last of our policy section the,Federal Reserve can control the money,supply and influence interest rates and,those two variables money supply and,interest rates are inversely related so,when they increase the money supply that,means that they are lowering interest,rates and the result of this is to,increase economic activity and decrease,unemployment so again that fourth third,and fourth bullet point increase in the,money supply lowering interest rates,increases economic activity decreases,unemployment doing the opposite decrease,in the money supply and raising the,interest rate slows down the economy and,decreases inflation so depending on what,the goal is to fight unemployment they,would lower or they increase – find,lower interest rates and to fight,inflation they would decrease the money,supply and increase interest rates all,right so we get to public opinion and,how we measure it so we have a group of,types of polls here entrance and exit,polls are used to predict the election,outcomes this is on election day these,are polls taken of people who are,exiting or entering the polling place,and they essentially ask people ho

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