1. 2022 AP Psychology Exam Review
  2. 2022 Live Review 1 | AP Psychology | Scientific Foundations
  3. AP Psychology Unit 1 Review [Everything You NEED to Know]
  4. PSYC 1001 Final Exam Review
  5. 2022 Live Review 5 | AP Psychology | Cognitive Psychology
  6. AP Psychology Exam Review
  7. 9 Key Concepts for AP Psychology | Up-to-Date for 2022 | The Princeton Review

2022 AP Psychology Exam Review

hey everyone if you are taking ap,psychology youre in the right place,miss severson how are you doing today,doing well the end is near the test is,tomorrow the test is tomorrow i thought,it was next week its um how in the chat,everyone i want you to give me an emoji,for how youre feeling this is a live,youtube chat you can,watch,it later and let me just,write miss stevenson how are you doing,uh and okay thats on your end and so um,yeah that chat is there for you all to,talk to us to ask us questions about ap,psychology definitely if you like this,video press that like button and were,here to help how we can so ms severson,just one thing out of the gates as,everyones giving an emoji for how they,feel as everyone is is um posting their,questions,can i radically change my ap psychology,score on youtube the night before the,test sure i think anything we can get at,this point is icing on the cake yes,icing we can radically change the icing,and the like little floral things so,what are we going to be covering in this,review session sure so what were going,to be covering today is we are going to,some students had asked about stats,yesterday so i created some stats,questions um but i definitely want to go,through units five through nine so i,dont have as many multiple choice,questions like i did yesterday i just,want to make sure were getting through,giving some really good examples for,students,great,so everyone im going to be moderating,the chat tonight so lets keep it,focused as we wrap up our emojis and we,focus on questions from the severson and,then well take some breaks and uh,answer some questions as we go through,im going to turn it over to you and get,us started on our final cram session,sounds great,all right everybody the test is tomorrow,um so lets um get started with just a,few questions that you may have um i,would like to,just let you know that yesterday we did,the final cram number two um and i did,have some practice questions and i have,a key available so i can post that,so,another um part that i think would be,really beneficial to look at tonight if,you havent done so already um is going,to the frq practice um so what you would,do is if you just google ap psycfrq its,going to be the first thing that pops up,and you can go through and look at,previous free response questions,and that is a really good way to,practice i wouldnt even write them down,you can just look and say this is how i,would answer it and then you can go,check the rubric so thats an excellent,resource especially for the day before,tomorrow you have your test make sure,you have your number two pencils for,that multiple choice portion uh you are,allowed to write all over the booklet so,feel free to cross out make sure youre,drawing diagrams if you need to,just this uh the only thing that they,score is that scantron um so just again,feel free to write over everything same,thing with that free response im gonna,encourage you to read both questions and,then make sure that you are,um answering the easier one first,because then you can have a little bit,more time for that uh later one,now we are going to start by reviewing,stats and then we will look at units one,through or five through nine excuse me,okay so as a refresher theres a hundred,multiple choice there are,uh,free response there are two free,response the first one is concept,application and the second one is,research design,and then heres yeah im sorry to,interrupt i just wanted to say one thing,its um this is appearing somewhat small,on our screen here oh let me move it,yeah so if you actually want to make it,full screen what we can do,um is if you if you switch modes then,what i can do is i can share some of the,best questions from the chat right here,lets do that,so well take a second and set this up,for you all again post those questions,in the chat im going to keep my eye on,the things and remember ive posted two,links for you one to our test day,checklist which is great for last minute,things and two to the ap central page,that miss everson was just talking about,with those past frqs for you all so ill,give you a minute to share it um in that,mode,thats gonna be better thank you very,much,okay thank you okay so lets get started,with stats and were going to start with,the easier ones first,um so looking really at the two,different type of stats that you need to,know so we have measures of central,tendency which is the mean median mode,then we have measures of variation or,variability so looking at the range and,then a histogram and then the standard,deviation and the normal curve and i,threw a couple icing on the cake,questions and for you,so this is really the only one that i,want us to practice and you can go ahead,and put the um your answer in the,comments or you can just write it on,your sheet of paper,just to kind of check our answers so,its the first day of golf practice,and the,first years have completed the first,hole below is the data one person is,better than the others so id like you,to find answer these questions how would,you calculate the mean and remember,theres no calculators whatsoever on the,ap psych test you cant bring them in,okay what is the median and then which,measure of central tendency would you,say is best for this set of data and im,going to give you about 30 seconds or so,to answer this,okay so it looks like answers are,starting to come in the mean is 10 and,the median is 12. now when we have this,set of data where we have an outlier so,you can see 11 through 13 pretty close,together so that 2 makes it an outlier,so the median would be better to use,than the mean in this case because it,really is going to be that middle number,with 50 percent of the population above,and 50 below the mean um you a question,here do you have to calculate standard,deviation you do not im going to show,you what you need to do for your,standard deviation but you do not know,need to know how to calculate that good,question,so here are some um graphs that i wanted,to show you uh so where can we see this,you could see it on the test on multiple,choice but there have been a few times,on the research design where you have to,draw a graph so you could have to draw a,bar graph like that is on here on the,left so a bar graph is used for,categorical data so if we did favorite,colors and the left was red the second,one was blue we would count how many,students did that okay so um you may see,that ive seen it on the frq for um like,the difference between the experimental,and the control group and then how you,would draw that make sure you label the,axes as well as well as the bars,now the one on the right is a histogram,and the histogram is going to show,more variability so i could do a range,here so we can see that zero we dont,have numbers on the x-axis but maybe,its a score of zero to five and then,five to ten so anybody who falls in that,five to ten would be that second from,the left and this is showing more of a,distribution um the other thing you,notice with the histogram theres no,spaces um in between them so it really,is like a distribution im going to show,you that on the next slide here or in,two slides,okay so lets take a look at standard,deviation so um you may be given a,diagram like this but more often than,not youre probably going to have to,calculate it or just know it yourself,um so,uh yeah and to go back a bar graph isnt,used for standard deviation i was just,showing a separate graph okay so just,another graph in addition to standard,deviation,okay,so what were looking at here is,sometimes you could see the normal,distribution but other times youre,probably just going to have to know it,like it says here so if the mean is 100,and the standard deviation is 15 what,percentage of the population falls,between 85 and 115 and im going to give,you about 20 seconds to figure this out,and just type in your answer,okay so heres what we have is um you,may have to say so if this aminos 100,where you see the zero

2022 Live Review 1 | AP Psychology | Scientific Foundations


hey everyone im dr swope and as the,slide says im from northwest high,school in germantown maryland that means,the lawyers say im contractually,obligated to say lets go jags,so what are we going to talk about today,well guess what were going to talk,about clowns uh teacher secrets,approaches to psychology research and,maybe just maybe well talk about,puzzles too so what will be the actual,content were talking about well its,going to be divided kind of into two,main things in this video i mean aside,from the puzzles and the clowns and the,teacher secrets um well you know when,the slide says what were what were,going to learn about actually youre,going to do the learning uh miss del,savio whos going to be my partner shes,an amazing teacher youre going to see,her in the next video,you know we already know this stuff and,thats why the college board has hired,us,um like i said theres theres two main,academic content to this video the seven,approaches to psychology and what were,going to do with that is not just to,introduce the seven approaches were,going to use the seven approaches to,start to introduce talk in clinical,psychology um what you know what are,disorders and how do we conceptualize,disorders is disorders part of the brain,is the brain having a stroke a problem,or is it are your thoughts having a,problem theres different ways to look,at it and if if the different way of,looking at a disorder of the seven,approaches well then maybe theres,different ways to treat that,so thats going to be what were going,to kind of start off with um and if you,if you need a quick review weve got the,biological approach the cognitive,approach behavioral evolutionary,sociocultural humanistic and of course,the psychodynamic,the second half of this video is going,to be on experimental design and thats,just going to be a fancy word for,research there are many ways to do,research everyone thinks about,experiments theres actually a lot of,course we will focus quite a bit on,experiments okay and of course were,gonna do some practice multiple choice,stuff and some practice frqs,okay so what is this video series what,is it and what is it not um well lets,kind of tell you tell you what what we,planned for these next couple videos um,were gonna what were gonna learn is,really a function of how much time we,have we have a limited amount of time,and were only gonna do eight videos so,we cant squeeze everything in there,for instance today we only have 45,minutes but if any of you know me im,gonna so go over that because i like to,talk too much right now i said theres,only eight sessions including today so,really we dont have time to explain or,define every single term its just,beyond the scope of this video think of,this as a guide or review or a checkup,okay this shouldnt necessarily be your,only source of studying for the ap exam,you know its its not a replacement for,your textbook or teacher and its going,to sound so like uh you know sloganish,that you know anything difficult to do,passing an ap psych exam you cant do it,easily you know youre going to have to,put in the time or the work so i hope,you also have other resources and of,course ap classroom,is going to be there for your ap daily,videos and all the practice questions,there so lets talk a little bit about,the ap exam as you probably know by now,and if you dont well here it is its,may 3rd uh 2022,okay you still gives us quite a bit of,time to prepare that doesnt mean you,should slack off and say youll do it,the night before um you know you and i,both know the night before cramming it,doesnt work it doesnt work physically,i mean you cant do like an all juice,cleanse and then have a perfect physique,right before a beach vacation and you,cant cram to study especially if youre,you know got whole months and,weeks and days its not going to work,right,so muscles can grow over time with the,right stress thats the whole point of,exercise and so can brains we call that,neuroplasticity thats our first,vocabulary word yay first vocabulary,word of this video series,um the whole point of learning is the,brain can change right regular,distributed practice now that,distributed practice is the opposite of,cramming its over time its disciplined,im going to do it here im going to do,it here im going to do it here rather,than try to like jump in make up a whole,months worth of studying in two hours,thats not going to work out too well,okay make a plan,when are you going to study dont just,say in the evening you know write down,time whether its an hour or two half,hour blocks with a break in between,three half hour blocks with breaks in,between where are you going to study you,know plan out what youre going to do,are you going to study with other people,you dont have to do it with them all,the time but its important that you,share the plan,and then that will allow you to track,the plan how are you doing you know be,honest with yourself be accountable tell,other people hey can you help me stay on,track i want to study this is my goal,help me reach my goal,okay and then you know what were doing,right there this whole slide this is,kind of using psychology to study,psychology because psychology is of,course the study of the mind and thats,where this information has to go,okay i mentioned were going to put,together a puzzle so well were not,really going to put together but my,rhetorical question for you is have you,ever put together a jigsaw puzzle of,course you have okay,its a lot easier when you have the,picture to look at i try to do it once i,know im a little off i try to do it,once like upside down just to see if,its possible so you have nothing but,cardboard you know brown cardboard,pieces can you put it together nearly,impossible,that would be bottom up that would be,youre getting the individual,information and then youre trying to,piece it together without a guiding,principle that has its advantages,especially in science where you dont,want to be biased by a preconceived idea,but when were talking about studying,this might not be the best idea,do studying bottom up would be trying to,memorize only vocabulary youve got,individual words you got the definition,but thats not what the ap psychology,exam is going to measure its not going,to test you on we want to look at top,down we want to have a schema like you,start the puzzle and you know what the,end should be youre looking at the box,top right so this is what the goal is,and what i mean is you have an over you,you have a larger idea of what youre,supposed to study,so ask yourself ask your teacher look in,your book look at some of the learning,objectives um in in the ap ap classroom,and ask yourself what are you supposed,to know,how are you you know how do these things,fit together and throughout this video i,want to urge not memorizing vocabulary,but seeing relationships between between,terms thats how youre gonna best,prepare yourself,okay here we go teacher secrets and,seven approaches i told you wed mention,teacher secrets and im probably gonna,get kicked out of the teacher but quite,frankly they never liked me anyway so,here we go,have you ever wondered or been asked why,people do things im sure you know you,might ask yourself why does that person,do that and notice its usually after,something weird or annoying you notice a,weird behavior that doesnt think why,and sometimes it frustrates you right,well answering thats pretty hard to do,unless you control for our all variables,its going to be very difficult,to say why does any one person do any,behavior and well talk about,controlling variables later um and also,we talk about bf skinner because,remember he put different animals in,skinner boxes although he didnt like,that term but that allowed him to,control everything and find what caused,their behavior well,giving a specific reason why anyone does,anything is difficult we at least have,to have ways of thinking about the why,or even the whys and this goes back to,what i was t

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AP Psychology Unit 1 Review [Everything You NEED to Know]

hello there and welcome to the first,unit review video of ap psychology my,name is mr sin and today were gonna be,going over everything you need to know,about ap psychology unit one scientific,foundations of psychology now before we,get started i need you to click the link,in the description of this video and go,get the study guide for the video its,in my ultimate review packet the study,guide will go along with the video and,help you take notes on all the important,concepts that you need to know about in,this video this video is just one part,of the ultimate review packet youll,find everything you need to succeed in,your ap psychology class or an,introduction to psychology class in,college the packet has unit review,videos for each unit practice quizzes,study guides answer keys full practice,ap exams and other resources to help you,learn ap psychology all right enough of,that jibber jabber now its time to get,into ap psychology unit one topic one,now this video is going to be going fast,so make sure you have your study guide,out and youre following along if you do,miss anything dont worry i got an,answer key in the ultimate review packet,thatll make sure you get all the,information you need now when were,talking about psychology were talking,about the scientific study of the mind,and behavior we can see that there are a,variety of different individuals who,have made contributions to the field of,psychology and helped shape the field,into what it is today william vunt is,known as the father of psychology he,created the first laboratory that was,dedicated exclusively to psychology,research vent studied the senses,reaction time attention spans emotions,and eventually one of the students,edward titchener would go on to create,structuralism william james taught the,first psychology course at harvard,university he wrote the first psychology,textbook and created the theoretical,approach known as functionalism he also,helped get more women into psychology,one of those women was mary whitten,caucus stanley hall became the first,american to earn a phd in psychology he,opened the first psychology lab in the,united states of america and became the,first president of the american,psychological association mary wayne,calkins joined william james graduate,seminar despite pushback from the,university and other students calkins,made significant contributions in memory,research and went on to become the first,female president of the apa margaret,floyd washburn made significant,contributions to animal research she,also became the first woman to earn a,psychology degree and became the second,female president of the apa charles,darwin proposed the idea of natural,selection and argued that our behaviors,and bodies were shaped through natural,selection this reinforced and shaped the,theoretical approach known as,evolutionary psychology dorothea dix,helped reshape the medical field by,highlighting the unfair and inhumane,treatment of mentally ill people and,also helped to reform insane asylum,sigmund freud created the psychoanalytic,theory which was later changed to the,psychodynamic approach he focused on,studying the unconscious mind and,believed that peoples personalities are,shaped by unconscious motives ivan,pavlon focused on reflex conditioning,which would later become known as,classical conditioning he is most known,for his experiment with dogs and their,digestion john piaget was the first,psychologist to conduct a systematic,study of cognitive development he would,eventually go on to create a theory of,cognitive development focusing on,children carl rogers is one of the,founders of humanistic psychology,he made significant contributions to the,research and understanding of peoples,personality bf skinner expanded on the,theoretical approach of behavioralism he,is known for operant conditioning which,focuses on behaviors and positive and,negative consequences theres also john,b watson who was one of the founders of,behaviorism he believed that psychology,should be a scientific study and focus,on observable things as you can see,theres a lot of different people who,have shaped the field of psychology and,this list only scratches the surface,remember this is a unit review video,were highlighting the main concepts,that are listed in the ced if you need a,more in-depth overview of these concepts,check out my topic review videos on,youtube they cover all the topics in,depth now when talking about different,concepts in psychology we can use,different schools of thought to approach,different topics we can see,structuralism focuses on different,structures of conscious through,individual parts it uses introspection,which is the process of looking inward,to observe yourself think functionalism,on the other hand looks to understand,our mental and behavioral processes here,we view these structures not as,individual structures but evolved,functions functionalists seek to,understand how the different structures,work together and impact each other,gestalt psychology looks at the whole,consciousness and includes the study of,perception sensation learning and,problem solving here we are focusing on,the organizational process instead of,just the content of behavior,psychoanalytic also known as,psychodynamic looks at behaviors and,mental processes and how they are,influenced by the ego and the conflict,with the id and the superego here the,focus is on the process that come from,the unconscious oftentimes free,association will be used here which is,when an image or a word triggers another,idea or word inside a persons mind so,those are some of the historical schools,of thought but remember we also have,modern perspectives as well first is,early behavioralism which believes that,behaviors are learned through,experiences and are observable this is,broken down into reflexive conditioning,also known as classical conditioning and,operant conditioning next is humanistic,which believes humans are naturally good,and seek to reach their potential,through free will the goal to life is to,reach self-actualization sociocultural,studies the impact of a persons culture,nationality religion gender social norms,and other cultural impacts on a persons,behavior and mental processes then we,also have different approaches starting,with the evolutionary approach this,studies how behaviors and mental,processes of today exist due to natural,selection the biological approach looks,at how different structures of the brain,and nervous system operate with the goal,of understanding the link between our,biological and psychological processes,lastly we have the cognitive approach,which looks at attitudes memories,perceptions and expectations all,influence behaviors and mental processes,for individuals here the focus is on how,individuals process and remember,information we can see that psychology,is made up of different domains and,focuses there is the biological the,developmental the cognitive educational,personality social positive and,psychometric domain each focus on,different aspects of life these domains,can be classified as basic research,while other domains such as industrial,organizational counseling and clinical,can be classified as applied research,remember basic research is research that,seeks to build psychologys knowledge,base while applied research focuses on,applying research and taking on,practical problems for example,counselors who seek to help individuals,cope with challenges in life like school,or work speaking of counselors remember,that counselors are different from a,psychiatrist a psychiatrist provides,psychotherapy and are medical doctors,who can prescribe drugs and treat,psychological disorders right now for,this last part of this first section of,unit 1 it deals with the different,subfields of psychology what i want you,to do for this part is go through the,study guide and answer the questions,complete the table on the different,scenarios you can see that each scenario,focuses on differ

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PSYC 1001 Final Exam Review

okay so this is the final exam review,video for the class Im actually going,to show you a final exam that I have,used in the past and were gonna go,through the questions and its just like,this is just like we did with the review,video last time I will show you the,question if you get it right,you move on to the next one if you get,it wrong youll see me explaining what,the answer should be so lets go ahead,and begin this first one says social,psychologists focused more on blank as a,source of behaviors okay so social so,this is the difference between,personality and social psychology that,we talked about so personality means,personality personal dispositions means,your personality social situations,thats what social psychologists focus,on heuristics are shortcuts in,decision-making thats a heuristic,social psychologists dont really focus,on those pugna psychologists do,evolutionary theory lots of different,psychologists worry about evolutionary,theory not just social psychologists,the ABCs of psychology are blank,behavior and blank ABC effect behavior,and cognition,thats from the very beginning of class,apik means feeling states behaviors,behavior cognition means mental,processing ethic behavior cognition,cognitive load happens because of the,limited capacity of which one alrightso,capacity means how much you can put in,their long-term memory has an unlimited,capacity you can put as much in there as,you can fit sensory memory that also has,it unlimited capacity just a limited,duration its short-term memory the stuff,that were thinking about right now,lets living it to seven plus or minus,two chunks of information,which of the following is an example of,how motivated cognition influences,thought and behavior okay so motivated,cognition influences thoughts and,behaviors,so lets gonna go on how we think about,these things so,the self-serving bias is a bias where we,attribute positive outcomes to ourself,and negative outcomes to other things,alright so thats a form of attribution,normally we dont think about that,particularly as a form of motivated,cognition however it is about how we are,motivated to think well of ourselves so,it is actually an example of motivated,cognition the cocktail party effect,thats when you are talking to somebody,and theres something you hear your name,and your pay attention to that instead,that is definitely motivated cognition,comparative cognition thats when we,compare humans to non-human species and,thats nothing to do with motivated,cognition the confirmation bias is when,we make information fit with what we,already believe to be true or correct,that one is an example of how motivated,cognition influences thought,your capacity in your short-term memory,is blank plus or minus two pieces of,information we just talked about this,one when we were talking about cognitive,load so short-term memory can have seven,and in this case you can either put the,number seven or I think you can type out,seven but seven plus or minus two pieces,of information in your short-term memory,availability heuristic is most related,to which one of these availability,heuristic is something that is available,in your brain all right so the,availability heuristic is it related to,cognitive dissonance well not really,because thats about behavior in,conflict with a belief about myself so,Im not really by a social theory thats,the evolutionary theory its not really,anything to do with him self-serving,bias thats when Im motivated to think,I make up an internal attribution when,something good happens to me or an,external attribution when something bad,happens to me thats not really about,availability priming is making something,more accessible or available in your,brain so that is right answer self,perception theory is when we make a when,we discover our attitudes about,ourselves by looking at our own,behaviors,to be diagnosed with this tinea a person,must experience their symptoms for at,least two years,asthenia is persistent depressive,disorder and you have to experience,these symptoms for at least two years,major depression is for two weeks which,of the following would you,operationalize in a study okay,operationalize means either to,manipulate or to measure those are the,two kinds of operationalization an,independent variable is the variable,that causes a change in the dependent,variable so for example in an experiment,the thing that you the researcher change,and the participants is the independent,variable its the thing that you,manipulate so if you manipulate it then,it has to be an operationalization the,dependent variable is something that you,measure,you always measure it and since its a,measurement its also an,operationalization external validity,its not a measurement or a manipulation,so the answers are independent variable,and dependent variable,Sheridan and King theyre the ones who,did the real shocks on the puppies okay,people were worried that perhaps in,Milgrams experiment Milly wasnt an,experiment Milgram study they people,were just responding because they knew,what they were supposed to respond to um,they didnt really you know want to,shock the people and they really didnt,think they were shocking the people they,thought they were doing it because they,knew what the researchers wanted them to,do and that is a demand characteristic,Rosenthal effect is when the researchers,unwittingly changed the the the results,of whats going on in the participant,right in this case that wasnt happening,the placebo effect is when the when the,participants actually believe that the,change is causing something else when,its not and thats not whats going on,here the actual belief that happened was,because of you know they actually,believed theyre shocking people demand,characteristics is when people think,that theyre just going along with it to,do whatever the researcher wants them to,do,individuals suffering from,post-traumatic stress disorder may avoid,people or places that increase anxiety,levels we explain this using some basic,terminology from behavioral psychology,for example after someone has,experienced a violent incident at a,shopping mall similar retail locations,weve considered a UCR means,unconditioned response UCS means,unconditioned stimulus CS means,conditioned stimulus and s means neutral,stimulus CR means conditioned response,so in this particular case lets say,that somebody had was at a shopping mall,and a violent incident happened okay the,violent incident would become would be,the UCS because a violent incident,incident creates a fear response the,unconditioned response so violent,stimulus creates fear unconditioned,stimulus the violent stimulus incident,creates fear which is unconditioned,response,the shopping mall should be a neutral,stimulus at the beginning of this it,shouldnt have anything to do with it,shouldnt have anything to do with it at,all but because it happened at the,shopping mall that might be associated,with it and the neutral stimulus becomes,whats called a conditioned stimulus and,similar retail locations could be a,conditioned stimulus that cause a,conditioned response of,many people have trouble getting their,dog to walk on a leash without being,pulled forward by the dog Ive been,taking this course you suggest the dog,finds walking pleasurable so one fine,one way to modify its behavior is to,stop it take a five-second timeout when,it pulls forward on the leash,taking away the dogs ability to head,towards it where it wants to go youre,suggesting the dog owner use blank to,reduce the undesired behavior of pulling,forward all right so we want to reduce a,behavior so automatically we know that,this is punishment okay we know this is,a punishment because we want to reduce,the undesired behavior,so in this case what are we doing we are,taking away we are taking away the dogs,ability to head towards where it wants,to go were taking away something so we,are punishing by taking away that is,negative punishment positive punishmen

2022 Live Review 5 | AP Psychology | Cognitive Psychology


hey everyone uh if you can read that,means that im dr swope uh northwest,high school germantown maryland and i,know you can read but its just so much,fun to say my name and where im from so,hey lets dig in what are we gonna talk,about what are we gonna learn today,and the answer is of course cognitive,psychology um and cognitive psychology,is really broad and really fascinating,one of the challenging thing with,learning it and teaching it is you cant,see it you know you cant see a thought,you cant see a mind you cant see,memory um and that you know makes it,challenging but also makes it a little,bit more interesting so so lets see,what makes up cognitive psychology,well of course were gonna have memory,but again you cant see it right um,types of memory were gonna talk about,types of memory today i think the thing,that kind of confuses folks is amnesia,versus interference were going to look,at types of problem solving heuristics,im sure you know youve heard that,theres a lot of them biases intel we,also got to talk about intelligence when,what goes with intelligence theories and,aspects of testing what makes a good,intelligence test you know an iq test,could you make an iq test and if so how,would you do it that would be a great,after ap exam project,distribution of scores and were going,to look at that bell curve thing again,and then lets talk about language,acquisition why do we need to talk about,language acquisition well because i,dont think you can think of i dont,think you can have a thought without,words and so thats why words and,thoughts are kind of almost the same,thing all right now before we get too,deep into cognitive psychology lets,review our previous frq,aaron is a junior in high school and has,spent last nine months practicing,driving in preparation for his road test,each day leading up to the exam his,parents let him drive their suv he drove,to and from school the store and even,once on a long road trip to his,grandparents house the day of the exam,the suv would not start to his parents,barred a neighbors car so that they,would not have to change the exam date,when the examiner got to the car with,aaron he asks aaron to conduct a variety,of maneuvers with a car including a,three-point turn parallel parking,between orange cones and making a series,of stops and turns so heres what you,have to do or what hopefully youve,already done uh explain how the,following would hinder aarons,performance during the road test um and,so you got to know conditioned response,negative reinforcement explain how the,following would help aaron be successful,and in this section you want to focus on,help in the previous section youd focus,on hinder right so explain how the,following would help aaron be successful,on his road test stimulus generalization,and chaining so lets look at these,sample responses,the conditioned response is a,classically conditioned behavior or,reflex might be a better term there to a,previously neutral stimulus if aaron had,been in an accident in his neighbors,car he might now associate it with that,scary feeling of being in a crash and it,makes him nervous just to be in it in,that car as a result of being so nervous,he doesnt focus on the instructions,given to him and does not pass the test,notice we talked about hinder,somethings blocking him from doing what,negative reinforcement is when you,repeat a behavior in order to avoid a,punishment or any aversive stimulus if,aaron is taking the drivers test and,sees a squirrel run in front of the car,he break he will break so he avoids,hitting the animal which is a good thing,to do again unless your drivers test i,dont know um and if his examiner,doesnt see the squirrel they may deduct,points and aaron will not pass the,drivers test now were going to switch,to these two words should help aaron,stimulus generalization in operant,conditioning is when you learn something,in one situation and can transfer that,learning to a new but related situation,even though aaron has never driven his,drivers car he was able to use it to,pass the test by figuring out the brake,is still on the left and the accelerator,left of the accelerator and stopped when,he needed to,chaining is when a large complex task,such as parallel parking is broken down,into smaller ones and each step is,reinforced until finally only the entire,chain of behaviors is rewarded,parallel parking is a multi-step process,and aarons parents reinforce each step,of it such as aligning the car to the,spot backing up and finally,straightening the car that fits in the,spot aaron can successfully park and,pass the test yay for aaron okay well,lets kind of thats kind of done for,conditioning and learning lets dig into,cognitive psychology first thing we got,to talk about is the information,processing model also known as the,atkinson shiffrin model,okay well this is a serial thing which,means we go step by step by step the,first step is sensory memory and if you,know ap psychology oftentimes theres,more than one term for a concept so,were going to call it not only sensory,memory sensory register were going to,put things in a box and underneath that,nested in sensory memory,were going to have echoic well think of,the word echo um and this has probably,gotten me out of trouble im not going,to say with my wife because i love her,daily but i guarantee its gotten you,out of trouble with maybe your mom your,dad or your teacher imagine youre not,paying attention youre doing your thing,on your phone,and some adult says hey are you even,listening now you werent listening but,you said yeah i was because you dont,want to get in trouble right and then so,what happens if someone says oh yeah,whatd i just say because of echoic,memory you have about a two second like,sound recorder in your mind and you can,repeat the words you can repeat the,sounds you just heard even though you,werent paying attention as long as its,kind of two seconds that gives you about,a sentence or two of leeway so then you,repeat the sounds and then the persons,like even though they knew you werent,listening and you werent but because of,echoic memory you kind of dodged that,trouble right iconic memory i call like,uh you get to re-see something and why i,say if youve ever kind of left or been,an umpire and a pickup game did the foot,hit the line did the ball with the ball,in line or out of inbound or out of,bounds your iconic memory allows you to,see something that happened about one,second or less than one second before so,hopefully those kind of descriptions,will help you learn now what we got to,do is get stuff from sensory memory to,the next part okay and how are we going,to do that youre going to pay attention,think of all the things youve ever seen,youve seen a gajillion red cars can you,remember any of them no do you know why,because you didnt pay attention,obviously you can see as a teacher im,contractually obligated to nag you about,studying and paying attention in your,class as part of my job so you cant,learn if you dont pay attention now,what do you pay attention to about one,percent of all the things less than one,percent what less than one percent of,all things you ever tasted smelled felt,touched you get the idea and seen and,heard 99.9 of that stuff youve ever,seen you dont remember you dont pay,attention to if you dont pay attention,to it it doesnt get to short-term,memory whats in short-term memory,well your capacity is only about seven,things,so you can without practice um you can,usually only remember about seven things,if you have a shopping list and you,dont write it down youre not gonna,remember stuff now maybe youre,different but this is the average how,long would you hold them for about 30,seconds so imagine youre doing your,math problem and you see the numbers and,you decide to get up i dont know what,are you going to do youre going to go,stare at the wall count grass or sniff,your hands i dont know what your hobby,is right so,as soon as you get up from sta

AP Psychology Exam Review

okay,hi everyone its john from marco,learning im here with miss liz,steverson how are you doing tonight,im great how are you,im amazing im in new jersey where are,you joining from this evening,wisconsin,wisconsin sounds like it and its great,to see you and its great all the people,who are coming in let us know in the,chat what grade youre in where youre,joining from this is a live session,were going to be answering your,questions throughout so the ap exam in,psychology is uh exactly was it 36 hours,away from now 24 8 and a half hours its,pretty close,what are we going to be covering overall,in tonights session,well today i wanted to start by looking,at the first four units plus the,research design free response question,um so,i i want to well look at that research,design unit its super important look at,the question then get as far as we can,through through the course in 45 minutes,okay well off to the races then ill,give you the next 45 minutes to do this,everyone say hello to us in the chat and,if you like this video press that like,button for us,okay great,okay hello everybody so welcome to the,final cram session um if you uh,what were going to be doing today is we,will be looking at just the breakdown of,the test um seeing what questions you,have and just put those in the chat um,so just as a reminder on your test on,tuesday at noon um there are two,sections so we have a multiple choice,thats worth two-thirds of the exam um,and its 100 questions in 70 minutes,then you have a little bit of a break,and then you have two free response,questions um to answer in 50 minutes and,that first ones concept application so,thats pretty much any content vocab uh,from units two through nine and then the,great thing that the college works,started doing with the ap psych test is,we know that one of the questions is,research design so we can really tailor,and focus our studying um to make sure,we have that unit one down,and then heres the unit breakdown im,not going to go through them,individually but you will notice,throughout that i will say what the,percentage is designated to the multiple,choice part of the exam so when you see,10 to 14 that means about 10 to 14,questions out of the 100 multiple choice,will be on that unit this also helps you,decide what you need to study for,example if you have to prioritize i,would probably put,unit 5 first with cognitive psychology,because its the largest and then,sensation and perception last because,its smallest,so lets get started right away with,unit 1 scientific foundations,so really what you need to be able to do,is you need to be able to differentiate,between methods and ethics thats going,to be an important part not only on the,multiple choice but the free response,questions,so the key component with methods is,looking at how do we study what are the,procedures that we use to make sure that,we can have credible,generalizable results so here are some,vocab that youll see the different,types of methods with descriptive,and youll also see correlation as well,as experimentation and then everything,that goes with that to help reduce bias,then the ethics is really looking at,should we study so we looked at a,variety of ethical uh or unethical,studies in psychology this year so we,can look at the milgram shock experiment,should we have done that or and thats,more of an ethical issue,and heres the vocab that would go with,that i will be reviewing that a little,bit more later in depth,so one thing that i like to do is i,dont want to sit and talk to you for 45,minutes so i do have a series of,questions so if you have a sheet of,paper handy um what you can do is just,jot down um abcde uh so you can see uh,do a quick progress check to see where,youre at okay so the first one is just,two,an industrial organizational,psychologist wants to study the effects,of a new employee evaluation program so,go ahead and write down do you think,that this is a methods issue or an,ethics issue with number one,and for this one,it is going to be a methods issue that,word randomly select random selection uh,is helpful for reducing helping to,reduce bias um between the sample and,the population um to make sure that we,are getting a representative sample,so this next one because this is only,two im going to give you about 10,seconds or so to answer so the next,question has the exact same scenario,but now what were looking at is a,different question,and this one then would be ethics,because it is looking at,uh requiring participants rather than,getting voluntary participation and,informed consent so that would be an,ethical violation and well be coming,back to this to show you what it looks,like with that free response,so one key part uh that you that has,been a high frequency term on the free,response questions is operational,definitions,so an operational definition is really,the specifics of the experiment um i,like to think of it as a recipe so if i,were to give you a cookie recipe and say,you need flour you need peanut butter,you need eggs you need baking soda you,need sugar and thats all i gave you you,would probably have a difficult time,creating that recipe what you would want,is how much flour how much sugar and,thats really what were looking at for,the experiment we want to know exactly,how were measuring the independent,dependent variable,so,heres an example so if we look at,salomon ashs conformity study which was,the line segments okay the independent,variable is going to be the response by,uh the confederate so them saying the,incorrect answers really would be the,independent variable and then the,dependent variable is conformity so i,want you to write down here how would,you specific how was conformity,specifically measured in ashs study so,go ahead and take about 10 seconds and,write that down on your paper,so the best response here with,conformity and the operational,definition is really looking at,the uh is looking at the respondents,answers okay so the participants answers,if they said the correct answer then,they didnt conform if they went along,with the group they did conform so their,answers would have been the,independent or excuse me the operational,definition,now really what we want to look at here,is why do we need operational,definitions and this is in order to,replicate the study so when we look at,the importance of these operational,definitions we know we need replication,and what happens with replication is,that this allows us to increase,generalizability from the samples to the,population so thats another big,buzzword that you could use in your free,response question,so,um one thing that if i have time to ill,come back and look at but this is really,something that i highly recommend that,you review,you do need to know the definitions of,these key terms but you also want to,know the purposes the advantages and the,disadvantages of each method so ill,give you an example here so we already,know methods is how we study when we,look at descriptive methods one,disadvantage for all of those is that,they do not show cause and effect,because theyre describing whats,happening,so in a case study a good example,of an advantage would be,that you can study unique and rare cases,but a disadvantage might be its limited,generalizability because its only one,individual and whats true for that,person may not be true for everybody so,you can go ahead and do that for the,survey and naturalistic observation as,well,as well as correlation and,experimentation i think the biggest,thing to take away from correlation and,experimentation,is correlation does not equal causation,so lets say on the multiple choice,you see a question that says,they have concluded that there is a,correlation which of the following is,the best conclusion that they they can,draw nothing that says causes or is a,synonym of causes so causes impacts,benefits all of that would be,experimentation really the best word,that you can use for correlation would,be tens as one incre

9 Key Concepts for AP Psychology | Up-to-Date for 2022 | The Princeton Review

9 Key Concepts for AP Psychology AP Exams Spring 2021,The Princeton Review,Hi, there!,Welcome back!,I’m Rob Franek, Editor-in-Chief at The Princeton Review, and today we’re sharing the top,9 AP Psychology concepts you need to know before exam day.,Before we get started, let’s do a quick overview of the test.,The AP Psychology exam is divided into two sections.,Section one counts for approximately two-thirds of your overall grade and consists of 100,multiple-choice questions to be completed in 70 minutes (that’s less than a minute,per question!).,Section 2 of the exam consists of two free-response questions and together they count for the,final one-third of your grade.,You’ll get 50 minutes to complete this section.,In just 2 short hours, the exam is designed to test your ability to:,(1) Connect psychological theories and concepts to real-life scenarios,(2) Understand and interpret data (3) Analyze psychological research studies,While the exam will certainly cover a ton of information, take a deep breath because,we have you covered!,Grab a pen and notepad, and let’s dig into the concepts you’ll need to know to ace,the exam!,#1 – The Scientific Foundations of Psychology: At the most basic level, psychology is the,study of behavior and the mind.,It seeks to describe, predict, and explain behavior along with the mental processes underlying,behavior.,To understand modern psychology, you’ll need to first understand its scientific foundations,and history.,This includes understanding the contributions of historic scientists and founders of psychology,like Charles Darwin, Wilhelm Wundt, William James, and Dorothea Dix.,You’ll also need to know about the various branches of modern psychology, including biological,psychology, behaviorism, cognitive psychology, and social psychology.,The exam will also test you on psychological research methods, including correlational,and clinical research, experimental design, and statistical methods.,#2 – The Biological Bases of Behavior: Physiological psychology is the study of behavior and mental,processes as influenced by biology.,For the exam, you’ll need to understand the interaction of inherited traits, the environment,,and evolution in shaping behavior.,You should know the structures and functions of biological systems, including neuroanatomy,,the endocrine system and nervous system, neural transmission and behavioral genetics.,You should also be familiar with the different imaging techniques used to examine the interrelationship,between the brain and behavior such as EEGs, MRIs, and CAT scans.,There are a few other concepts you should know, too!,Study up on the states of consciousness, including sleeping and dreaming, and familiarize yourself,with the clinical uses of hypnosis and meditation techniques like mindfulness-based stress reduction,(or MBSR).,And, finally, you should aim to understand the various types of psychoactive drugs such,as amphetamines and hallucinogens.,You should know how they affect the central nervous system, brain, and behavior, and how,they contribute to addiction and drug dependence.,#3 – Sensation and Perception: The AP Psychology exam will also examine how we, as humans,,use our senses to process the world around us and convert those observations into perceptions,that influence how we think and behave.,While sensation and perception questions will only account for about 6% of your grade, every,point counts!,So, be sure to understand the basic principles of how humans experience stimuli and the mechanisms,of our 5 senses.,#4 – Learning: It’s important to understand how humans and other animals learn as a result,of experience.,There are various learning methods you should be familiar with, including classical conditioning,,operant conditioning, nonassociative learning, and social learning.,You should know influential researchers like Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, and Albert Bandura.,And, more importantly, you should understand their theories of learning and the results,of their famous learning experiments.,#5 – Cognitive Psychology: Questions related to cognitive psychology could make up a whopping,17% of your exam!,So, folks, you’ll want to understand the complexities of how memory, language, cognition,,and other mental processes affect human behavior.,You should study up on the cognitive and physiological processes that make up memory, and be able,to distinguish between the 3 memory storage areas – sensory, short-term, and long-term,– according to the modal model.,You’ll also need to understand the problem-solving strategies humans use, such as divergent and,convergent thinking, heuristics, and insight.,This also means understanding biases and errors in thinking, such as hindsight bias and confirmation,bias.,Next, you should know the processes of learning and using language.,This includes understanding the stages by which children acquire language, Chomsky’s,transformational grammar system, and the theory of linguistic relativity.,Lastly, you need to know the ways in which intelligence is defined and measured.,Understand the types of tests designed to measure psychological characteristics and,intelligence, as well as how psychologists ensure reliability, validity, and standardization.,Be sure to familiarize yourself with psychologists like Charles Spearman, Robert Sternbern, and,Howard Gardner, and their contributions to our understanding of intelligence.,#6 – Developmental Psychology: Developmental psychology can be defined as the study of,the changes that occur in people’s behavior and mental processes over their lifespan.,The College Board will expect you to know about the physical, social, and cognitive,developments that occur in childhood.,This includes understanding stages of motor development, beginning with rudimentary reflexes,and progressing through the learning of specialized movements.,You should also be prepared to analyze different theories of childhood cognitive development,,including the stages described in Jean Piaget’s developmental theory.,Beyond childhood development, you should understand adolescent and adult development and challenges.,Erik Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development was the first theory to assert that development,is a life-span process.,But Erikson’s theory is not the only social development theory.,Be sure to study the contributions of psychologists like Harry and Margaret Harlow, John Bowlby,(the father of attachment theory), and Mary Ainsworth.,You should also take time to review theories of moral development.,And lastly, you should be familiar with Freud’s psychosexual development.,#7 – Motivation, Emotion, and Personality: By test day, you should understand the social,,biological, humanistic, and cognitive theories of motivation.,This will include understanding concepts such as intrinsic and extrinsic factors of motivation,,cognitive dissonance, and Maslows hierarchy of needs.,You’ll also need to understand theories of emotion like the James-Lange theory, Cannon-Bard,theory, and Schachter-Singer’s two-factor theory.,Next, you should know about stress, specifically how people appraise and respond to the stressors,of everyday life.,You need to be knowledgeable about the physiological responses to stress, including fight-or-flight,and the general adaptation syndrome.,Research into stress has also revealed that people generally show one of two different,types of behavior patterns in response to stress ––The Type-A pattern and The Type-B,pattern.,Be sure to understand the difference between these two patterns.,Lastly, you should be a near expert on personality theories by test day, especially on the psychoanalytic,theories of Sigmund Freud – the first and most influential personality psychologist.,You’ll also need to understand the personality theories of Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, and Carl,Rogers – to name a few!,And while you’re at it, be sure to study the tests and assessments used to measure,personality, including the Eysenck Personality Inventory a

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