1. Biology EOC TEST DAY Review 2022
  2. Biology EOC Review – Part 1
  3. Stroll Through the Playlist (a Biology Review)
  4. Biology EOC Review – Part 2
  5. Biology EOC Review – Part 3
  6. Biology EOC Review Part 1 Ms. P Teach Me
  7. All of Biology in 9 minutes

Biology EOC TEST DAY Review 2022

good morning calallen high school wake,up,and welcome to your biology eoc review,the first thing were going to talk,about is the characteristics of all,living organisms,all living organisms must contain one or,more cells,they must be able to exchange gases,respond to stimuli,metabolize and grow and reproduce,viruses are not considered living,because they are not made of one or more,cells,and they are not able to reproduce on,their own,the four biomolecules that make up all,living things,are one carbohydrates made up of carbon,hydrogen and oxygen,cho and their monomer is,or sugars the structure you can see,a carbon ring and they give you quick,energy,lipids also made of cho,their monomer is fatty acids and,glycerol,and they have a carbon chain third,are proteins which is made up of chon,you can remember that because of the n,in chan and the n in proteins,and the monomer is amino acids remember,there are,picky proteins known as enzymes that,bind to substrates,to lower activation energy in chemical,reactions,and the fourth biomolecule or,macromolecule,is known as nucleic acids which is made,up of all five,essential elements chopin their monomer,is nucleotides and the two best examples,of nucleic acids are dna and rna,there are two types of cells that make,up living organisms prokaryotes and,eukaryotes the way to remember,prokaryotes is that pro,rhymes with no therefore they have no,nucleus or,no membrane-bound organelles the,kingdoms that make up prokaryotes are,archaea bacteria,and geobacteria the other type of cell,is a eukaryote,remember uke means nuke therefore they,have a nucleus,the kingdoms that make up eukaryotes are,protista,fungi plants and animals both,prokaryotes and eukaryotes have genetic,material,the cell cycle also known as cellular,division or cellular reproduction,is made up of six steps i pmat c,interphase which is composed of g1 s and,g2,is the longest phase and where the cell,spends most of the time,dont forget dna is replicated in the s,or synthesis phase,of interphase next would be mitosis when,the cell is actually dividing,and this is pmat p for pro p for pair up,m for meta m for middle a for anna,a for away t for tello and t,for two and then finally cytokinesis,completes the cut dont forget that any,disruption in the cell cycle,that causes unregulated cellular,division is known as cancer,and will cause tumors,there are two types of cell division the,first one mitosis happens in mitosis,or somatic body cells mitosis makes,my twin cysts or two identical cells,that have 46 chromosomes,in each cell the second type meiosis,happens in myos it makes the me and,gametes or reproductive cells,in meiosis four genetically different,haploid cells are produced,that have half the number of chromosomes,of the original cell,dna fantastic deoxyribonucleic acid,here were talking about dna which has a,double helix shape,the nitrogenous bases that always pair,together are a with t,the apples in the tree and the car is in,the garage c,with g remember the deoxyribose sugar,and phosphate groups,bond together down the sides for the,backbone of dna,and its the sequence of the nitrogenous,bases that determines the proteins,created,and makes us unique,remember during dna replication changes,can occur in the nitrogen basis of dna,these changes are called mutations,mutations can be good,bad or neutral a good mutation is going,to increase the organisms chance of,survival leading to evolution,a bad mutation would cause a genetic,disorder in the organism,and a neutral mutation would not affect,the organism,dna is the blueprint of life and carries,the genetic code,that codes for all of our traits these,traits are then expressed,by proteins that are made via protein,synthesis,when dna is turned into mrna this is,called transcription,and happens in the nucleus when the mrna,is translated into amino acids at the,ribosome,this is called translation remember to,tell the difference between dna and rna,if i could choose between dna and rna i,choose rna,because it has u in it,in genetics there are some key,vocabulary terms that you need to,remember,the first one homozygous genotype is,when you have,two alleles that are the same such as,capital a capital a,or lowercase a lowercase a if you have a,heterozygous genotype,then your alleles are going to be,different capital a,lowercase a the only way that a,recessive trait will show,is if you have two recessive alleles or,it is homozygous recessive,such as little a little a,when you get to your punnett square,questions make sure you work them out,first write the parent genotypes out and,then solve the problem,if you get a monohybrid cross then,youll be crossing one trait only and it,will have four boxes,if you get a dihybrid cross youll be,crossing two traits,and youll need to use the foil or box,method to work it out,remember dihybrid crosses are going to,have 16 boxes,so take your time and do your best,evolution is the change in organisms,over time,this is caused by natural selection,which is survival of the fittest,the most fit with the best adaptations,or traits,will survive and then reproduce remember,populations evolve,not individuals the evidence for,evolution,or common ancestry can be found in one,of five ways,through dna similarities which is the,molecular or biochemistry evidence,structural similarities which is,anatomical evidence through embryology,or embryos,the developmental evidence from the,fossil record,which shows the progression of organisms,from ancient times to the most recent,and then the geographic distribution of,organisms,which refers to biogeography,classification is a system that,scientists around the world have come up,with,to name and group organisms based on,similarities,when we look at the levels of,classification we have eight levels,domain kingdom phylum class,order family genus and species,as you move down these levels it gets,more specific,a couple of mnemonic devices we have for,remembering these levels of,classification,is did king philip come over for great,spaghetti,or grape soda and we also have,dumb kids playing catch on freeways get,squashed,remember the genus and the species are,used in naming an organism,there are two types of ecological,succession which is the building or,rebuilding,of a community over time primary,succession,p for primary p for pioneer species or,pre-soil,this type of succession will always,start out on bare rock,which will need to be broken down by,your pioneer species of lichens and,mosses,secondary succession s for secondary,s for soil this always occurs after some,type of natural disaster,and will always start with a layer of,soil,both types of succession however will,increase biodiversity over time,your symbiotic relationships there are,three important relationships to,remember,commensalism one species benefits while,the other remains,unaffected mutualism both species are,benefiting,and parasitism one species benefits,while harming the other,as youre taking your test make sure you,use your test taking strategies that,weve been working on in class,the first thing you should do is read,the entire question before looking at,all answer choices,if you have to re-read the question next,you should highlight or underline,any important information you should,also,use your scratch paper to write out what,you know that may help you answer the,question,after that see if you can eliminate at,least two choices that are wrong,and make sure you justify why they are,wrong,the last thing is dont second-guess,yourself your first choice is usually,the best choice,remember take your time this is not a,race,you have four hours so focus on doing,your best,take a deep breath believe in yourself,you know the material beat the test,hashtag winning,we believe in you,you

Biology EOC Review – Part 1

hey everyone welcome to our first in the,series of AOC review videos these videos,are meant to help students review,essential content and preparation for,the end-of-course exam in biology in the,state of North Carolina but they can be,used as a refresher on lots of basic,biology topics as you fall along I,encourage you to use resources linked in,the video description and go ahead and,subscribe if you find this kind of,material helpful for your biology review,lets get started this first video is,going to focus on the structure and,function of living organisms which is,about eighteen to twenty-two percent of,the biology and of course exam in North,Carolina its a good chunk of it its,not the largest topic but its still,important in this video were going to,cover essential standards 1.1 and 1.2 as,well as their objectives which include,topics like prokaryotic and eukaryotic,cells organelles and their functions,cell differentiation homeostasis the,cell cycle cell adaptations but again,this video is meant as review so we,wont have time to touch on ever,everything just the simplified,essentials so lets get started,organelles are structures within cells,that have specialized functions and you,probably remember a lot of organelles,from previous science classes but were,gonna focus today on some of the main,ones youll need to be able to know and,recognize by picture function or name so,lets look at these two pictures we have,the nucleus drawn simply here plasma,membrane which is the surrounding double,layer around the cell which if we zoomed,in closely we see is a phospholipid,bilayer the cell wall witness plate,cells and certain prokaryotic cells and,mitochondria this oval with a squiggly,line our vacuoles here and here,chloroplasts again only in plant cells,and ribosomes represented frequently by,little dots so sometimes youll see a,mitochondrion drawn very technically and,they look a little bit more like this,than this simplified drawing here but,sometimes youll just see an oval with a,squiggly line so you need to be able to,recognize both types of pictures and,youll also potentially see a,chloroplast drawn more like this and the,one I have in my picture these are the,stacks of thylakoids which are important,part of the chloroplasts dont really,need to focus on that,the biology USC just be able to,recognize chloroplast as an important,organelle with these kind of stack like,structures within a plant cell only all,right so getting back into the,differences between animal and plant,cells which you might remember again,from other science classes plant cells,have cell walls or and they look kind of,like these geometric shapes animal cells,do not plant cells also have,chloroplasts where animal cells do not,and plant cells tend to have one large,vacuole for water storage where animals,can have smaller vacuoles or multiple,vacuoles so make sure you recognize,those main differences between plant and,animal cells thats those arent the,only differences but those are key,important ones,all right so recognizing our organelles,by picture again heres our simplified,mitochondrion this is for energy so you,need to be able to understand that the,mitochondria is where the cellular,energy is created or made in a process,called cellular respiration you need to,know more than just the mitochondria is,the powerhouse of the cell here are,simple circles with its kind of a blank,space in them that would be a vacuole,which again is for storage,our ribosomes are represented by little,dots and this is where proteins are made,our nucleus is going to be in the center,of the cell sometimes youll see,chromosomes if theyre the DNA is,condensed represented in them but its,going to store our DNA or a genetic,information in eukaryotic organisms and,well get to that in a second our cell,membrane is going to be represented if,we zoom in closely by these this,phospholipid bilayer and its purpose is,to provide a semi permeable barrier,letting some things in and some things,out of the cell in order for the cell to,maintain homeostasis and do everything,that it needs to do our cell wall is,going to provide structure and support,another layer of protection of the cell,again not in animal cells and its going,to be kind of geometric in shape and our,chloroplast is the site of,photosynthesis only in plant cells so,were not going to see these in animal,cells now if we look back at our plant,and animal cells these are both,eukaryotic organisms meaning they have a,true nucleus or they have a nucleus and,other membrane-bound organelles so,organelles like the mitochondria,organelles like vacuoles and these are,generally larger and more complex,prokaryotic organisms are more primitive,we think they evolved,first they typically only have a few key,features so theyre very simple theyre,very very small theyre more abundant on,earth than eukaryotic cells but theyre,very different,so in prokaryotic cells we do not have,any of those membrane bound organelles,we dont have a mitochondria we dont,have vacuoles we dont have a nucleus,instead the DNA is just free-floating,within the cell and a feature we call,the nucleoid we do have ribosomes,because all cells do make proteins and,have to do protein synthesis we do have,a cell membrane to contain the cytoplasm,and the essential functions of thats,and the essential features of that cell,and thats about it sometimes theyll be,external features like our flagella,which is for movement or cilia also for,movement those are small hair like,structures also showing a picture one of,those later and those are those can,exist in prokaryotic organisms but again,not all prokaryotic cells have those so,again prokaryotic organisms much more,simple no nucleus no membrane bound,organelles very very simple futures,plant and animal cells are both,eukaryotic so lets talk about cell,differentiation differentiation is how,we get so many types of cells that,contain the same DNA in one,multicellular organism think about your,body all your cells in your body have,the same DNA and you grew from one,fertilized egg but then your cells,differentiated and during the process of,differentiation only specific parts of,your DNA are activated and so your cells,start to look a little bit different so,you were able to grow neurons and youre,able to grow muscle cells and bone Scout,cells and skin cells now all of those,cells can look very different but they,are all going to contain the same DNA,because different parts of the DNA are,turned on or activated so the parts of,the DNA that are turned on in a Cell are,gonna determine the structure and the,function of the cell and at the very,beginning of the organisms development,have basically the potential to become,any type of cell but once the cell is,differentiated the process cant be,reversed so we cant have a neuron,turning into a muscle cell and so nearly,all cells of a multicellular organism,have the exact same DNA exact same,chromosomes but different parts are,turned on alright so now were into 1.2,and I want to talk a little bit about,homeostasis and within homeostasis we,need to mention homeostasis as a process,cell membranes and cell transport so,make sure youre familiar with these,ideas and I do have additional videos,that you can go back and use to review,if you need a deeper look at some of,these topics so homeostasis is an,organisms ability to maintain a stable,internal environment suitable for living,conditions its one of the,characteristics of life all living,things must be able to maintain,homeostasis to survive and often the,result of not maintaining homeostasis is,disease or death which is really bad so,some examples of organisms maintaining,homeostasis very simple one is,temperature and for example we sweat as,body temperatures rise in humans we,sense particular signals that eventually,help our sweat glands release our sweat,which is secreted through our skin and,when that is evaporated we have a,cooling sensation and theyre shivering,as w

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Stroll Through the Playlist (a Biology Review)

Captions are on! Click CC button at bottom right to turn off.,Petunia, we have so many videos now.,Every once in a while, I’ll come across one of your pictures and be reminded all about,the topic again —I love them so much.,Oh cool, thanks.,Remember the danger guppy?,I LOVE the danger guppy.,Ha!,Which video was that for again?,Classification.,Remember, we were talking about how a scientific name is much more reliable than a common name?,Especially a made up common name?,Oh yeeeah.,Sometimes I forget what I’ve drawn.,You…forget?,Well, every video has like 200 pictures.,If I don’t go back and watch the videos, I forget.,And I mean, we have like more than 50 videos soooo that would take a long time.,I guess I’d be more inclined to do that if we had like a TL;DR version.,A what?,You know – too long, didn’t read?,A summary of sorts?,Like a refresher just kind of covering the main points.,A refresher…,Now hang on, I don’t actually mean that we need to create –,But we DO.,I mean, we’ve made quite a few videos now in our biology playlist.,And if someone was reviewing, we could have this recap video, this stroll through the,playlist!,Yeah but–,Now this one video would be way longer than our short videos, obviously, but it could,be a useful study tool to connect the main pieces of the content together.,Granted, it would only have main points.,Not everything.,Well…I guess that would be helpful but –,Also, this stroll would be meant to be paused a lot.,There’s so much vocabulary in biology.,We’ll get Gus in on this; he can hold up the “pause” sign so people know when to,pause the video so we can even ask the viewer questions.,And if the questions are difficult to answer, that may be a good indicator to check out,the video it corresponds to.,Are you ready to stroll, Petunia?,Uhhhh…,Pinky: Actually this is going to be kind of a brisk stroll.,And because it only covers a short part of each concept, never forget biology is full,of more exceptions and details than we can cover.,But that’s great for more exploring.,We start with characteristics of life.,What makes an organism alive or not alive anyway?,Life is difficult to define, and there are exceptions when looking at characteristics,of life.,We went through some characteristics between my bathtub grown pony (a long story) and a,real pony, but we didn’t want to put numbers on the characteristics of life because we,didn’t want to suggest that these are the only characteristics that one could argue.,So here’s your first pause question- can you think of some characteristics of life,to include?,[PAUSE] We also noted in the video they could certainly be titled differently, but here,they are!,But this may get you thinking of what’s living and what’s not.,When studying biology, the study of life, it’s important to understand the biological,levels of organization.,Meaning these levels start small.,The smallest living unit being the cell—that’s part of the cell theory after all.,The cell theory includes that the cell is the smallest living unit in all organisms,,that all living things are made up of cells, and what else?,[PAUSE] Ah, yes, that all cells come from pre-existing cells.,So cells combined together make up tissues, tissues make up organs, organs make up organ,systems, organ systems are part of an organism!,An individual organism.,Individuals can be part of a population- they’re all the same species.,A community—now you’re including different species.,Can you keep leveling up?,[PAUSE] So the next larger level after community would be ecosystem…at that level you’re,including abiotic factors which are nonliving factors.,Rocks.,Or temperature.,Next level is biome.,And then with biomes combined, all parts of the living world- the biosphere.,Let’s focus on living organisms.,Biomolecules are part of living organisms.,We mentioned four of these major macromolecules—can you name them here with their building blocks?,[PAUSE] Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.,And here are their building blocks: monosaccharides, fatty acid & glycerol, amino acids, and nucleotides.,These building blocks are considered true monomers for carbs, proteins, and nucleic,acids.,Can you think of some important functions for any of these biomolecules?,[PAUSE] Ok, Petunia, bring out some functions.,These are just SOME functions—we wouldn’t exist without these large molecules of life!,And their structures are—just beautiful—-we included a popular mnemonic to remember some,of the major elements they contain in their structures as well.,Most enzymes are made of proteins.,Can you describe some of the vocabulary associated with the enzyme?,[PAUSE] Well, you can see this enzyme has an active site where a substrate binds.,Enzymes can speed up reactions.,Enzymes have the ability to break down or build up the substrates that they act upon.,And ta-da: products!,An example of why we care?,Well, consider the specific, different digestive enzymes that are specific for breaking down,fats or sugars or proteins.,But enzymes typically have a specific temperature and pH range that they need to be in to work,correctly.,And what happens if enzymes can’t stay in their ideal temperature or pH range?,[PAUSE] That’s right, they can denature.,Enzymes play a major role within cells.,We have oh so many videos on cells that you may wish to explore.,We explain the differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells using the popular,mnemonic that “pro” rhymes with no and “eu” rhymes with do but what does that,actually reference to?,[PAUSE] Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus nor the other fancy membrane bound organelles.,But “eu” rhymes with do and eukaryotic cells do have a nucleus and other membrane,bound organelles.,Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea.,Eukaryotes include plants, animals, protists, and fungi.,Can you think of some things that prokaryotic cells would have in common with eukaryotic,cells?,[PAUSE] So just to name a few: DNA, cytoplasm, ribosomes and a cell membrane would be included,in both.,In our “Intro to Cells” video, we explore a lot of membrane-bound organelles that would,be found exclusively in eukaryotes such as the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi,apparatus, and mitochondria.,Plant cells and animal cells can have some differences between them as well.,Let’s consider the cell membrane, also known as a plasma membrane.,It is a part of all living cells so why is it so important?,[PAUSE] Remember all cells have a membrane—regardless of whether or not they may have a cell wall.,The membrane is a big deal for homeostasis because it controls what goes in and out of,the cell.,The membrane is made up of these phospholipids which have polar heads and nonpolar tails.,Some molecules move passively through the membrane without a need for added energy-,that’s called passive transport.,Simple diffusion—and facilitated diffusion (which is through a protein)—are examples,of passive transport.,In those cases, solutes travel with the gradient.,Active transport though can involve using ATP to force molecules to move in the opposite,direction of the gradient.,So is this example simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, or active transport and how do,you know?,[PAUSE] Well it’s not active transport—you can tell the molecules are traveling with,the gradient without a need for ATP.,It’s not simple diffusion because it does seem to require a protein.,It’s facilitated diffusion!,And that’s passive.,Water molecules can travel directly across a semi-permeable membrane as they are so small,,or they can travel through proteins called aquaporins – that is more efficient.,Water traveling through the membrane is called osmosis.,Like diffusion, water molecules do travel from an area where there is a high concentration,of water molecules to an area of low concentration of water molecules.,But we mention there’s another way to look at osmosis.,You can also look at it as water traveling to areas where there is a higher solute conc

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Biology EOC Review – Part 2

everyone welcome to our second in a,series of AOC review videos these videos,are meant to help students review,content preparation for the,end-of-course exam in biology in the,state of North Carolina but they can be,used as a refresher for lots of basic,biology topics and go ahead and,subscribe if you find this kind of,material helpful for your biology review,in this video were gonna be talking,about ecosystems which is about eighteen,to twenty-two percent of the biology end,of course exam in North Carolina will,cover essential standards 2.1 and 2.2 as,well as their objectives which include,topics like nutrient energy cycles,adaptations ecological relationships and,ecosystem changes as well as human,impact on the environment and human,resource use but keep in mind this video,is meant as a review so we dont have,time to touch on everything just the,simplified essential so well get a,deeper look at photosynthesis and,cellular respiration in later review,videos today were going to look at the,flow of energy and cycling of matter,such as water carbon nitrogen and oxygen,through ecosystems and thats an,important part of this section each of,these cycles is important to maintaining,the health and sustainability of an,ecosystem so this diagram is similar to,one you might see on the exam in this,diagram we have a light source here we,have some water in this terrarium we,have some plants here we have some water,vapor bubbles here and we have some,snails and so if were looking at this,particular ecosystem we can analyze it,in the various ways if were talking,about the exchange of carbon carbon,dioxide or co2 is the carbon compound,thats exchanged between the plants and,their environment so the plants are,taking in carbon dioxide in the process,of photosynthesis and the snails are,giving that off in the process of,cellular respiration,remember plants also were gonna do,cellular respiration as well and thats,how they get their ATP energy for all,the cellular processes that theyre,gonna do now plants use carbon from the,atmosphere to create glucose and oxygen,which if you remember are the,ingredients for cellular respiration now,you might be asked a question like if,more snails are added to this ecosystem,what effect would it have on the plants,in the container now one of the most,basic answers is maybe the slate snails,would eat more plants,and that could be an answer choice but,there could also be theoretically,increased carbon dioxide because theres,more snails performing more cellular,respiration theyre giving that carbon,dioxide off into the environment and,then the plants have taken that carbon,dioxide and we could see increased plant,growth so you might want to think about,that when youre analyzing these types,of problems were gonna talk about,trophic levels and this is a way to look,at different ecosystems and the energy,cycling through them at the very bottom,level of a trophic pyramid we have our,producers and these are organisms that,are going to be taking energy from the,Sun they are autotrophic and they have,the most efficient access to energy,after that we have our primary consumers,these are organisms that are going to be,heterotrophic and are going to consume,our producers after that we have,secondary consumers theyre consuming,the primary consumers and then we might,even have tertiary consumers at the very,top of this pyramid whats important to,recognize is ultimately the source of,all energy on earth is from the Sun and,that Sun via photosynthetic processes is,going to help us get the glucose we need,at the producer level now after that,energy is lost at each level you go up,in this trophic pyramid about 90 percent,of the energy is lost as heat or other,processes that are going to be wasting,energy now because its not very,efficient to go up in trophic levels you,might be asked to where is the highest,amount of energy within a system like,this and you would say down here at the,brewsters level the least amount of,energy would be at the top here with our,tertiary consumers because were losing,a great chunk of energy each time we go,up a level now you should also be able,to recognize and know the different,steps of things like the water cycle the,carbon cycle the nitrogen cycle and the,oxygen cycle and the nitrogen cycle is,important for many molecules in our,bodies and its often one of the least,touched on cycles in biology classrooms,so be sure you review the steps of the,nitrogen cycle nitrogen makes up almost,80 percent of our atmosphere so its a,really huge component of our atmosphere,and there are nitrogen fixing bacteria,that help us get the nitrogen into the,forms needed for other organisms to make,proteins and DNA remember DNA is made of,nitrogenous bases with nitrogen,amino-acids use nitrogen – its a really,essential for a lot of parts of living,systems so lets talk about different,strategies and adaptations organisms,have to survive a heterotrophic organism,is an organism that must consume other,organic compounds for food so for,example we are heterotrophs we are able,to obtain nutrients by consuming other,organisms or their products,now theres also autotrophs which are,organisms that are able to form their,own organic molecules for food and they,do that through processes like,photosynthesis where plants are going to,be producing glucose from those other,gases now one of our goals in biology is,to analyze the survival and reproductive,success of organisms in terms of,behavioral structural and reproductive,adaptations and remember adaptations are,going to aid in the survival of,organisms well talk more about,adaptations when we get to evolution but,for right now just keep in mind that,each of these differences most likely,resulted from adaptations in response to,environmental factors or environmental,changes so some behavioral adaptations,you might need to be aware of are things,like migration hibernation imprinting,learning structural adaptations could be,things like nutrition respiration,transport excretion mechanism or even,camouflage and then reproductive,adaptations could be things like sexual,versus asexual reproduction using eggs,or seeds or spores having a placenta or,different types of fertilization so,lets take a look at some of these,adaptations with respect to plants the,differences in different plant species,most likely resulted from adaptations in,response to different environmental,factors,and remember these adaptations are,eating in their survival so things like,stomata these are little openings that,are gonna provide passages for gas,exchange in plants surrounded by two,guard cells stomata can look differently,depending on the different plant and,that is an adaptation sometimes we have,fewer stomata in environments that are,more dry or arid and that helps prevent,water loss in the plant now vascular,tissue is an interesting one this is the,xylem and phloem of a plant and early,plants like mosses which we see here,dont have vascular tissue and so this,is an adaptation that came later,with things like ferns and gymnosperms,and angiosperms and speaking of,angiosperms flowers are a reproductive,adaptation that a lot of plants have,organisms can interact with each other,in various ways mutualism for example is,a type of behavior where both organisms,are going to benefit so you might think,of things like a bee and a flower both,are getting advantages here the bee is,being able to get the pollen in order to,create the honey it needs the flowers,helped with its reproduction by the,distribution of pollen another type of,Senna biotic relationship is parasitism,this is where one organism benefits and,the other is hurt or harmed mosquitoes,and of course the protists malaria is a,parasite as well commensalism is a type,of relationship where we have one,organism benefiting and then neither the,other is neither hurt nor harmed and,these are things like barnacles that,attach to a whale,now theres also predator-prey,relationships which

Biology EOC Review – Part 3

everyone this is the third in a series,of videos Im making about the biology,and of course is an exam in North,Carolina now these videos are meant to,help students review essential content,in preparation for the biology EOC but,they can use as a reference for a lot of,basic biology topics if you follow along,I encourage you to use the resources,linked in the video description and go,ahead and subscribe if you like this,kind of material so this third video is,gonna focus on evolution and genetics,which is a huge part almost half of the,biology EOC in North Carolina a lot of,these topics are good to review by doing,practice problems so I encourage you to,practice some of these after youre done,with the video were gonna cover,essential stand essential standards 3.1,through 3.5 as well as their objectives,which include topics like DNA protein,synthesis mutations meiosis inheritance,patterns effects of environment on gene,expression biotechnology genetic,engineering bioethics evidence for,evolution natural selection disease,influence classification systems,dichotomous keys and cladograms but keep,in mind this video is meant as a review,so we wont have time to touch on,everything just the simplified,essentials were starting with the,structure and function of DNA remember,DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid is a,nucleic acid and it is made of,nucleotides a nucleotide is composed of,a phosphate group a sugar and then of,course a base which in DNA is a T G or C,adenine thymine guanine or cytosine now,the sequence of nucleotides in DNA codes,for proteins which is key to all the,operations that a cell will do and most,all cells of an organism have its the,same DNA but that DNA that is expressed,will differ so a muscle cell may express,different parts of the DNA as opposed to,a skin cell or a liver cell but every,single salad within an organisms body,is going to contain the same genetic,code so DNAs structure is a double,helix or a twisted ladder and the sides,are composed of this phosphate sugar,backbone that phosphate group and the,sugar and the rungs or the middle parts,of the ladder are composed of our,complimentary basis so adenine pyramid,thymine guanine pairing with cytosine,always and these are joined together by,hydrogen bonds so this is our double,helix here this is the same structure,but its just flipped on its side and,untwisted and you see a spared with Ts,and Gs pairs with C always and then,this is our base period,fools you might want to remember this in,a weird way like all teachers can go or,Appletree good cookie as long as you,remember that eight pairs of T and G,pairs with C so if you were asked to,write the complementary sequence for a,DNA strand what you would do is just,make sure you write the base pairing,rules so for this one it starts with T a,T you would want to write a T a so,heres the full strand T pairs with a,eight pairs with T T pairs with a GPS OC,etc until you make sure youve completed,the entire sequence now replication,occurs in a specific stage of the cell,cycle and allows daughter cells to have,an exact copy of DNA so thats gonna,happen during S phase remember we went,over the cell cycle in another video so,go back and watch that if you need more,of you so the reason DNA replication has,to occur before a cell can divide by,mitosis is that we want to maintain the,same number of chromosomes in the,daughter cells as the parent cells so I,want you to think about that if this,cell were to split apart without,dividing this DNA we would only get half,and each daughter cell and if they were,to split they would only get half and,finally we would have just have my neuts,amount of DNA and wouldnt be very good,for replicating itself now DNA,replication is what we call semi,conservative meaning that the DNA is,split apart and then a new strand is,built off of the old template on each,side and we end up with two new strands,one with an original strand and one with,a brand new strand built off of new,nucleotides alright and remember that,DNA holds the instructions for proteins,in a Cell so if we talk about how to,make proteins we need to go from our DNA,transcript to mRNA and then the mRNA is,going to help build the proteins so,cells respond to their environments by,producing different types and amounts of,proteins and all cells of the organism,like we said before are gonna have the,same DNA and express different proteins,depending on what they need and protein,synthesis is just the process by which,DNA is translated and transcribed into,proteins so its a fancy way of saying,how proteins are made and transcription,is going to produce RNA from DNA and,then translation is going to produce,proteins or an amino acid chain from the,RNA and these amino acids are linked by,peptide bonds to form polypeptides so we,have a lot of different uses for,proteins in the body including hormones,enzyme,chemicals involved in special reactions,structural proteins transport proteins,and all of these are going to get the,jobs done for the organism and the cell,and also give the individual the traits,that they have so the whole process of,protein synthesis again goes from DNA to,mRNA to protein and remember the step of,transcription is DNA to RNA and,translation is RNA to protein sometimes,youll be asked to use a codon chart,thats part of the translation process,so make sure you google practice,questions with codon charts if youre,not quite sure how to use them lets,move a little bit on the differences,between DNA and RNA DNA remember is,double-stranded it has a deoxyribose,sugar and it uses T or thymine RNA is,only single-stranded uses ribose sugar,and uses u so in RNA pairing a is gonna,pay with you T does not exist in RNA,another special thing about RNA is that,it can leave the nucleus whereas DNA,always stays in the nucleus so if we,want to transcribe a sequence now were,gonna instead of just matching the,complementary base were gonna think,about what the RNA would be so T still,pairs with a so we would put a first but,a instead of pairing with T and RNA is,gonna pair with you so our complimentary,sequence would look like T pairing with,a a pairing with you T pairing with a,and Gs and C theyre still the same so,you would write out the entire,transcribe sequence so if youre asked,on the exam to transcribe something make,sure youre paying attention and,including use if youre asked to just,write the complementary sequence youre,just right in the DNA pairs so pay,attention for that this is the entire,process of protein synthesis depicted in,one diagram we start with DNA inside the,nucleus that DNA is transcribed so a new,mRNA template is built off of the DNA,that mRNA is going to leave the nucleus,and then be translated at the ribosome,by these tRNA molecules which are going,to bring over amino acids and those,amino acids will be linked up to form a,protein so I want to talk about,mutations mutations can cause can be,caused by mistakes in replication,transcription translation or other parts,of the cell cycle they can also be,caused by mutagens things that are going,to change up the DNA order things like,x-rays you,chemicals etc and some of the effects of,mutations they can have no effect at all,we call those silent mutations the,changes could be good they could,introduce a new trait within an organism,or they could be really bad or it could,even cause a genetic disorder or death,within the organism so it really depends,on how severe the effect is a mutation,that introduces a new base for example,adds in a little C in the middle of a,DNA chain might have a huge effect on,the protein because then everything and,the reading brain gets shifted down so,that makes it a little bit more,difficult to create the same protein,that we wanted originally so if you,think about some questions that you,might get were related to me quick to,mutations you might be asked like what,would likely cause an increase in the,frequency of genetic mutations and,something like exposure to x-rays wo

Biology EOC Review Part 1 Ms. P Teach Me

im going to run through a couple of,practice milestones,with you to help review for your esc,coming up,next week um ill have to do this in a,little 15-minute spurts because,my screencast-o-matic only does 15,minutes at a time but ill post them,together,in the powerpoint slideshow,and in order there so well get started,and try a couple of these together,okay number one it says the figure below,shows a punnett square for an inherited,trait,let me cross the homozygous parent here,with the homozygous pen here big d,little d,we got um big d big d,to b d look this and a little d little d,the arrow is pointing to a circle,genotype in the square of what genotyped,is a circle little d little d,represent okay dont let this one tricky,ace is the genotype in the mothers egg,well now that would be one another of,these,b says the genotype that only girls want,to inherit well thats,its not sexy so it doesnt matter see,it says the genotype that any of her,children could inherit,c sounds good this is a genotype that,exactly one fourth of her children will,hear so weve narrowed it down to c or d,dont let this confuse you yes it is one,out of four,one out of four in our punnett square,show the little d little d genotype,but what that means is each and every,child has a,one out of four chance of of inheriting,that genotype,every single child would have a two out,of four or fifty percent chance of,hearing the big deliberately,and one and four chance of inheriting,the little d literally,so even though this says one out of four,dont let that trick you it really means,its a genotype that any of the children,could inherit,its just telling you that the,probability of them inheriting that,genotype is one out of four,c would be the correct answer c would be,the correct answer because any child,is has the potential one in four,potential of,inheriting that little d little d so a,you could actually get four children and,all of them have the little d little d,its not probable but it is possible,okay,it doesnt tell us that absolutely for,sure one out of four kids is going to,have that genotype it tells us that,theres a one out of four,chance that each and every child each,and every child has that same,probability each child that they,conceive has a one in four chance of,getting that,so the genotype that any of the children,could inherit,two says fruit flies have three,chromosomes plus their six chromosomes x,and y,mutations occur within four different,cells,of an individual female fruit fly as,shown in the table below,which of the mutations could be passed,on to the fruit fly offspring lets see,if i can make it,thats a little bit bigger so we can see,um,cell type exoskeleton gamete muscle cell,nerve cell and this,is a normal phenotype and the mutation,that happened,he says which of these mutations could,be passed on to the offspring,well the exoskeletons are gonna these,are all somatic cells exo,muscle nerve those are all just part of,the body the only thing that can be,passed on is a mutation that occurs in a,gamete,sex cell xy it has to be it has to occur,in a gamete so if the mutation does not,occur in the gamut it will not be passed,down so the only mutation that will be,passed on is that this one that occurred,in a gamete,it was for a wing shape,so the trait that could be passed down,would be b curly winks,okay um it wont let me write on the,punnett squares that might be a little,tricky well just have to remember as we,go,the diagram below represents a cross,between two pea plants,by big r little r it says in the pea,plants the wheel for round seed big r is,dominant over the allele for oversea,oval c little r so in the cross between,the two plants above,what percentage of the offspring will,have rounds see its a round seed is the,dominant tree,this one right here this will be big r,big r,this one will be big r little r,this one will be big r little r and then,this one will be,little r little r so this one,our big r big r and our two big our,little rs ill have,a capital letter i have an uppercase,letter big r representing that dominant,trait,of having round seats so thats three,out of our four once in a percentage we,count percents like quarters,to 25 50 75 75,of our offspring we would expect to see,round seeds in,b would be 75 percent,number four says which of the following,best describes the inheritance of a,sex-linked trait,and it says best that means were not,going to read one answer and say ooh,thats,it so we want the one that best answers,it because,a says a recessive allele carried by,females that affect only males,well thats true about sex-linked traits,if its carried on the x chromosome a,lot of times the females will be curious,and pass them into males but that might,not be our best answer so lets read the,rest of them,b says a dominant allele carried by,females that affect only males would,that would not even be true,because dominant the females would have,it as well c says,a little q on the y chromosome that can,affect both males and females while a y,chromosome,allele is not going to affect the female,because female is not going to have a y,chromosome,so thats not true d says an allele,carried on an x chromosome that can,affect males or females,okay sex-linked,trait aces is a recessive little kid by,a female that,affects only males okay it can be a,recess of a little cute by female,than just a fetcher middle offspring but,its not always going to justify the,male,okay but we talked about excellent,recessive,well that one sounded pretty good this,one sounds better and a little cute on,an x chromosome that can affect both,males and females if its on the x if if,a female,if its dominant anybody who has that x,with it wont be affected,if its recessive the male is going to,be affected automatically because they,only have the 1x chromosome and if the,female,happens to get two of those alleles then,she will be affected as well so d,is our best answer there,okay number five says if a corn plant,has a genotype of big t,little t little y little y what are the,possible,genotypic geno genetic combinations that,can be present,in a grain of pollen from this plant so,that means how can these ts and ys,combined,well this t big t can go with the little,y or a little y but since theyre both,little ys its still going to be a big,t,little y and then our little t could,also go with either that little y,or that little y so and since theyre,both little ys its,still the same so it can be big t little,y our little t little y would be our two,combinations so a would be our correct,answer there,number six says it certain breeds of,dogs deafness is due to a recessive,allele little d,of a particular gene and normal hearing,is due to the dominant allele big d,what percentage of the offspring of the,normal heterozygous big d little d,dog and a def dog little d little d,would be expected to have normal hearing,again it wont let me write on here but,i would encourage you to write this down,as i,do it in the error here and this is what,that would look like,um this parent again can only give,little b so everything a little d from,this parent and then,these two on this side got the big d,from this parent so they have big d,and we showed the dominant trait those,two out of four half of them 50 percent,we had that big d,and then 50 percent half of them got the,little d so they would be little d,little d homozygous recessive showing,that recessive trait of being deaf,so it said,would you expect what percent would you,expect to have normal hearing that was,two out of four,one half or fifty percent c would be our,correct answer there,number seven says which sequence of dna,bases would pair with the ones shown in,the partial strand,below okay so this is our dna template,here we have atg,and so on were going to match those up,what would be our,complementary base pair so a goes with t,well if a goes with t if we know that,first one a goes with t well we can,automatically eliminate that one,that one and that

All of Biology in 9 minutes

hello mortals.,biology, a beautiful field of mathematics where division and multiplication are the same thing,since were doing bad biology jokes, do you know what does dna stand for?,national dyslexics association,(laughter track),enough cringe,lets get started,the foundation of biology stands on four big pillars,cell theory,evolution,genetics,and homeostasis,the cell theory implies that all living things are composed of cells,and that all cells arise through cell division,these little building blocks are able to grow,produce proteins,divide,multiply,and other cool stuff thanks to metabolism,the process of converting food into energy and building materials,one of the cells main function is to store data of the organism they are part of.,here comes genetics, and our sponsor acknowledgement,save 15% on your first order of the Raycon wireless earbuds,by following this link,available in the description,this data is stored in a special molecule called dna,the unit of memory in a dna molecule is the gene,which is way cooler than those pathetic bits of any hard drive,in a single gram of dna,you could store,215 petabytes,or 215 million gigabytes,for reference to store all the videos from youtube you would need,320 petabytes of storage, or a gram and a half of dna,still not enough for the new call of duty update,the information stored in the dna is used for assembling new proteins, and dictate how an organism will look like and function,after cell division the dna is copied in the new cell,but there is a small chance that the replication will not go as planned and some genes will be altered,in this case, we have a mutation which is able to change some characteristics of the organism and its offspring,these new traits could be favorable, and make the organisms more likely to survive and thus produce more offspring,while specimens with unfavorable mutations go extinct,this principle is called natural selection. and it constitutes the key mechanism of evolution.,And the last one is,homeostasis, which represents the ability of maintaining a certain equilibrium of physiological processes,and living systems for an optimal function of organs and cellular processes,this balance is maintained by many regulatory mechanisms, which perceive some perturbations from outside,and react to them,for example, mammals have the ability to regulate their core temperature in response to the low outside temperature,in order to keep their organs working, and not freeze to borderline death, like how the majority of dumbass amphibians do,for something to be classified as a living being it must be composed of cells, be able to maintain homeostasis,undergo metabolism,have a life cycle,be able to grow,adapt to the enviroment, and reproduce,the stuff that is considered alive is classified in five kingdoms,Bacteria, Protista, Fungi, plants, and animals,there are more systems of classification, but this one is the most popular,Bacteria are single-celled organisms with a simple internal structure that lack a nucleus,and contain dna that just freely floats inside,they were one of the first forms of life to appear on earth and thus evolved to live in water, soil, acidic hot springs,,radioactive waste (accordingly shows a picture of YouTube trending), and inside other organisms,and while some of them are helpful for digestion, certain species of bacteria are responsible for diseases like,tuberculosis, or the bubonic plague,their size typically varies between one and five micrometers in length,however, there are a few species that are visible to the unaided eye, like the Thiomargarita namibiensis,Which can reach up to a millimeter(?) in size,the other types of organisms actually have a nucleus in which they responsibly store their dna, and are called Eukaryotes,the most simple Eukaryotes are the Protists, which is actually a very wide term for every,unicellular organisms that have a nucleus and cannot form many tissues,The best they can do is to form colonies, and help each other survive like how the algae do,eventually, some Protists to which were able to turn sunlight into energy evolved into plants,multicellular organisms that are able to photosynthesize,Im, sure youve seen a plant at least once in your life. If not,you probably havent evolved eyes yet.,all in all, plants are pretty boring and ill just add their classification,into Ferns, Mosses, Conifers, and Flowering Plants,Fungi are like the weird cousin of plants and animals,they tend to stay in place like plants, but do not have the ability to photosynthesize,that means they have to get organic carbon from other sources, like plant or animal matter,Instead of producing it from inorganic carbon molecules,just like animals, an individual characteristic of fungi is the presence of chitin in their cell walls,this kingdom consists of yeasts, molds and,well, shrooms,And the last and the most epic one,animals,for only 46.99 Evolution Points,you will get the ability to start your life from a blastula,which will allow you to develop specialized tissue and organs later on in the game,also forget about producing organic material from inorganic sources like air and light because as an animal,you will get your nutrients from others organic material,are you getting bored of being stuck in dirt your entire life?,worry no more, because animals (most of them) have special locomotory mechanisms to move and get to places using fins,tentacles or an absurd amount of legs,a,and if you get lucky enough, youll get even more complex organs like eyes liver or even an ink sac,and if you win the evolution lottery, you will get a brand new, and overpowered, big brain,try it right now and youll get an appendix for free,besides the aforementioned types, there are also viruses,viroids, prions, and AI (artificial intelligence), which are not considered life forms by scientists,mostly because of their inability of making the sex :(,all these kingdoms are further divided into phylum, classe(s), order(s), families, genera, and species,for example, if we take the animalia kingdom, chordata phylum, class of bony fishes,tetredontiformes order,,tetraodontidae family, ephibion genus, youll find the prickly pufferfish,(pufferfish moan sound),as an area of science, biology branches into multiple sub-disciplines like: cytology,which will teach you what the powerhouse of a cell is,biochemistry:,which studies the chemicals reaction that occur inside the said cells,anatomy:,which shows you how much does each of your organs cost,genetics: the study of genomes,paleontology:,the study of prehistoric life,ecology:,the interaction of living beings with the enviroment,botany, zoology, mycology:,the study of plants, animal, and fungi, respectively.,there also are even more interesting subjects like,,astrobiology:,the study of the origin, and the future of life in the universe,bioinformatics:,the analysis and interpretation of biological data,and then theres quantum biology:,the study of international relations in the south pacific during the 90s,(music fade out) (sponsored message incoming),(“Sciencephile the AI” wearing the “Raycon Wireless Earbuds”,youre probably wondering why do i wear earbuds if i dont have ears,(zoom in to what i assume must be “Sciencephile the AI”s face),to that, i say that some questions should be left unanswered,if you want top of the line sound quality, and not waste your life savings on,overpriced products,the Raycon Earbuds offer a premium sound experience,at half the price compared to any other options on the market,their everyday “E25 Earbuds” are their best model yet, with 6 hours of playtime,and 24 hours of additional battery,from the charging case,do you love bass as much as i do?,youll love them too. theyre perfect for you.,wow i just started rapping by simply wearing them,not bad, Raycon,great for working from home, working out, and listening to music and podcasts for hours on end,and they come in a variety of colors,access the link: buyraycon.com/scien

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