- The Steps of a Systematic Review
- What is a systematic review? | Explained | Quick and Easy
- What are systematic reviews?
- Conducting a Systematic Literature Review
- An Introduction to Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Everything you need to know in 59 minutes
- Intro to Systematic Reviews & Meta-Analyses
- Systematic review vs meta-analysis | What’s the difference?
The Steps of a Systematic Review[Music],from a distance,the steps of a systematic review look,pretty basic to answer a question or a,series of questions you just gather all,the information that exists filter out,the information that doesnt apply to,your question then combine it all,together into a report about existing,evidence and research gaps but lets,take a closer look,systematic reviews follow a rigorous,scientific process it takes more than a,few steps to comprehensively gather,combine and evaluate existing evidence,first make sure youre asking your,questions in the right way its possible,your questions are too broad so many,people have tried to answer your,questions in so many ways that youll,never gather all the evidence or maybe,your questions are too narrow and,theres no research or not enough,research to synthesize thats why the,first step of a systematic review is,prepare your topic take a quick look at,the available evidence to make sure,theres enough research to address your,question then craft a question thats,clear and specific enough to help you,decide what kind of studies should and,shouldnt be included in your search,once youve prepared your topic you can,go on to step 2,search for studies of course youll go,to electronic databases to find,published articles related to your,question but to find all of the evidence,related to your questions you might have,to look in some unconventional places,once youve searched everywhere for,evidence you can move on to step 3,screen your studies in this step you,take a careful look at what youve,gathered removing evidence that doesnt,answer your question or has research,methods you want to avoid once youve,sipped it through all your evidence its,time for step 4,extract the data take the evidence,thats left and pull out the information,that will help you answer your question,once the data have been extracted you,will need to carefully combine and,analyze what youve found,this is step 5 analyze and synthesize,your evidence if youre conducting meta,analysis this is where youll use,statistical tools to combine your data,youll also look at your studies to,evaluate the quality of the research and,check for bias once everything is,prepared youll combine all of your,evidence together to summarize their,research that addresses your question,now youre ready for the last step,report your findings once youve decided,what the evidence has to say about your,question turn your conclusions into a,report that describes the steps you took,and what you discovered then share it,with anyone who cares about your,question want to answer more questions,with a systematic review dont forget,the steps prepare your topic search for,studies screen studies extract data,analyze and synthesize evidence and,report your findings there you have it,the steps of a systematic review enjoy
What is a systematic review? | Explained | Quick and Easy
if you are interested in scientific,research you may have heard the term,systematic review,now in this video im going to explain,to you what a systematic review is,the joanna briggs institute defines a,systematic review,as follows systematic reviews are aimed,at providing a comprehensive and,unbiased synthesis of,large numbers of relevant studies within,the confines of a single document,by using rigorous and transparent,methods,so how does this systematic review get,put together,so researchers take a large number of,separate,individual studies which are relevant to,answers,answering a specific research question,and they take each of these separate,research studies,and combine them into one single,document,this is an example of a systematic,review of,all these studies being combined into,this one single document,now im going to just zoom into the,systematic review,and just show you what it looks like on,the inside,so open in front of me is a systematic,review,and even from the title you can see what,this systematic review is all about,investigating measurement properties of,physiological tests in rugby,now sometimes youll see in the title of,a systematic review,it will say systematic review and,meta-analysis,that and meta-analysis just means that,additional statistical testing was done,to pull together all the different,relevant studies,the statistics into one,so you scroll down and you find the,abstract,always a good part to read to find out,if the systematic review is really what,you were looking for,and then youll find the background also,typical of a research article,and then in a systematic review the,methods are written in quite,a bit of detail especially which,databases were searched for these,individual relevant studies which,keywords were used,the selection criteria how articles were,selected to be included,how the articles and the data from the,articles were extracted,the information was extracted to be,included in the systematic review,and then youll get to the results page,the results section where,the there will be a description of the,included studies and,the physiological characteristics of the,corresponding test the,the aim of the systematic review and,those data that,got extracted from the individual,studies will just be summarized in the,results section,now this is a prisma flow diagram which,just explains that,how many studies we included and,searched for,and found in the different databases and,what happened to them,as they went through the process of,filtering them out,to get to 70 articles,which got included in the systematic,review,then the tables inside the systematic,review,are very valuable it summarizes all the,studies that have been included in the,systematic review,so you can always find every single,separate study,and go and read up on the research,methods that they used and their,specific findings,then one very important area of,the systematic review that you need to,read and,i would say that you scroll down to once,youre done with the,results section is the discussion,now in the discussion the researchers,give you a very good,overview and interpretation of the,results,so thats where you get a piece of the,researchers mind,and these researchers putting together,these systematic reviews,theyre really experts in the topic so,you can learn a lot from them,so this discussion section is really,valuable,and then you can further scroll down to,the conclusion,which also give you more insight into,what the systematic review found and,then where the authors conclude,on the systematic review so systematic,reviews are,really a good type of research to read,especially if you want to learn more,about a research topic,i would suggest that you first find a,systematic review on the topic if that,is available,and then familiarize yourself with the,separate studies so enjoy,have fun
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What are systematic reviews?
Što su sustavni pregledi?,Sustavni pregledi pomažu pronalaženju smisla velikog broja različitih podataka.,Oni su način pregledavanja svih podataka i rezultata istraživanja koja proučavaju,određeno pitanje na standardiziran, sustavan način.,Sustavni pregled omogućuje objektivan i jasan pogled na sve dokaze vezane za određeno pitanje.,Cochrane logo vizualno prikazuje kako se mogu objasniti rezultati nekih sustavnih pregleda.,Evo kako sustavni pregled funkcionira.,Prvo, treba definirati pitanje i suglasiti se oko objektivne metode proučavanja.,Zamislite područje definirano pitanjem kao krug.,Sve unutar kruga je područje proučavanja.,Sve izvan kruga nije.,U taj će krug biti uključeni odgovarajući podatci.,Time počinje potraga za relevantnim podatcima.,Ti podatci mogu doći iz različitih izvora, uključujući podatke iz kliničkih istraživanja.,Zamislite da oblici prikazuju podatke iz različitih istraživanja, primjerice različitih kliničkih istraživanja.,Podatci moraju imati pravilan oblik da se uklope.,Da bi rezultati bili pouzdani, uključiti se smije samo podatke istraživanja koja ispunjavaju određene kriterije;,primjerice, odabir istraživanja koje je dobre kvalitete i odgovara na postavljeno pitanje.,Ako istraživanje ispunjava kriterije, može se prikupiti više informacija o tom istraživanju.,Informacije koje se odaberu mogu odgovarati na pitanja:,Kako je istraživanje provedeno?- što često nazivamo metodom.,Tko je sudjelovao u istraživanju?- koliko je uključivalo ispitanika?,Kako je istraživanje bilo plaćeno? Primjerice, izvori financiranja.,Što se dogodilo? Koji su ishodi?,Te se informacije uspoređuju s kriterijima da bi se procijenila kvaliteta istraživanja.,Jednom kad je informacija nađena, ona se može analizirati primjenom kompleksnih statističkih,postupaka da bi se dobio konačan rezultat iz cijelog skupa podataka.,Krug je jedan način vizualnog prikaza podataka.,Naziva se blobogram ili grafikon raspona pouzdanosti.,Područje pretrage definirano istraživačkim pitanjem može se podijeliti na polovicu Da i polovicu Ne -,na pozitivnu i negativnu stranu.,Što je kraća crta, to su pouzdanije informacije koje dobivamo iz podataka.,Zamislite dulje crte kao manje precizne i raspršenije podatke, a kraće crte kao preciznije i više grupirane.,Zamislite znanje kao svjetlo i neznanje kao tamu.,Što je širi fokus svjetla, to je ono slabije i stvari se manje jasno vide.,Ako je svjetlo usmjereno i podatci su jasnije grupirani, možemo biti sigurniji u ono što vidimo.,Dijamant prikazuje zajedničke rezultate svih uključenih podataka.,Budući da konačan rezultat uključuje podatke iz više izvora, smatra se pouzdanijim i boljim dokazom.,Što više podataka ima, to možemo biti sigurniji u zaključak.
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Conducting a Systematic Literature Review
Conducting research can be daunting.,There are a few distinctions that can help make it easier.,First and foremost, research can be either primary or secondary.,Primary research generally involves gathering data directly from research subjects and requires,ethical approval.,Secondary research involves gathering data that already exists. Because secondary research,does not include talking directly with human subjects, or generating new data, it does not,need ethical approval. In secondary research, you use findings of other researchers and,authors.,A systematic literature review is one of many research methodologies that can be used to,conduct secondary research.,A systematic literature review is different than a literature review.,A literature review provides a high level summary of the literature in the fields connected,to your proposed topic of research. It is a general synthesis of what has been done,in the research area, by whom, highlights what past research tells us about the topic,,and identifies gaps and tensions in the field.,A systematic literature review begins with an intentional and purposeful selection of,data that will be included in the research study. This includes:,- identifying types of information that will be included in the review, such as,policy documents, journal articles, book chapters, blogs, and so on,- criteria used to ensure inclusion of potential pieces of work, such as the scope,of the review; types of data to be included; and search terms for identifying types of information,- and any other specifications, such as language,of the information.,Once you have identified the works that will be analyzed, you need to do a deep and thorough,read to extract key information and themes from each piece.,A coding guide will help you discern which pieces of work you will use in your systematic,literature review. Be sure to note why you have excluded a piece and how the ones you,have included meet the selection criteria.,In the analysis phase, categorizing your findings and looking for commonalities and areas of,difference is useful. When you report on your findings you want to identify what themes,emerged.,The final step of a systematic literature review is to interpret your findings and bring,them back to your research question – what do they tell us about this topic? Are there,gaps in the research? Are there contradictions in your findings? How do these findings inform,a response to your research question? What recommendations can you offer? Is there a,need for further research? Were there best practices identified that you can highlight?,The reader should be able to understand what you did, how you did it, and the sense that,you made of the findings as they relate to the research question you were investigating.
An Introduction to Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Everything you need to know in 59 minutes
all right so why dont we hop in so,thanks so much everyone for taking the,time to listen to this talk and I think,its mainly if not all residents on the,phone so a big THANK YOU you you,resident physicians are truly on the,front line and I really appreciate,everything that you guys are doing,please know that if theres anything I,can do to help at any point in time just,let me know all right so what are we,talking about were talking about,systematic review everything you need to,know in 59 minutes so Ill let you all,know that were launching a trial of,prone positioning Taylor as part of the,the study team and this is gonna be,launching on gim across the city and,then soon to be in Brampton Etobicoke,Montreal Baltimore in Boston which is,really exciting if any of you guys want,to learn more about the study let me,know we should be randomizing patients,in the next few days,some disclosures and conflicts of,interest I dont have any conflicts of,interest but I received money from these,organizations to support my research so,conducting a systematic review and,meta-analysis or most research projects,to be honest its a bit of an obstacle,course and sometimes you just gotta get,through the obstacle course to know,whats coming up whats ahead of you Im,hoping to share with you some pearls,about what to expect so the first and,most important step is articulating your,research question if you cant do this,succinctly and clearly you dont have a,good research question so it should be,very very simple and you want to define,what population are you studying,what is the intervention youre studying,whats the comparator group and what is,the outcome there are a lot of,misconceptions complex absolutely not,it needs to be as simple as humanly,possible you should be able to explain,research question – like I dont know,your six-year-old nephew or cousin or,child and if they cant understand it,its too complex alright so keep it very,very simple you dont need to be first,theres been lots of studies really big,journals and they might have been the,tenth across the finish line and they,still ended up in good journals they,werent first but they did it right you,should always do what your supervisor,tells you to do absolutely not okay,its tough Im a resident of a med,student how do I say no but if you were,not excited if youre not passionate,about this study that youre about to,embark on you got to proceed with,caution with any project a systematic,review included youre entering a long,term relationship all right so take your,time before you dive right in,alright so lets actually define some,terms so a systematic review is a,literature review that collects and,critically analyzes studies using,methods determined a priori before you,start it and methods that can be,reproducible,what you get out of a systematic review,is sort of a qualitative summary of the,literature contrast that with a,meta-analysis in a meta-analysis youre,getting a quantitative summary of,literature and not all systematic,reviews lead to a meta-analysis Ill,explain that further as we go so theres,lots of types of reviews there are,narrative reviews thats like me saying,hey Taylor you know this journal wants,me to write something up about I dont,know cardiology and kovat 19:00 you want,to write it up with me were not really,systematic were just writing it because,we have a guaranteed publication in hand,lets use your narrative reviews go a,systematic review and be like hey Taylor,you know this whole idea of prone,positioning we should do a systematic,review lets talk with our search terms,of how were gonna identify these,studies and then lets organize how,were gonna review these studies and are,gonna analyze these study,so as the name suggests its a bit more,systematic theres a scoping review what,is that that might be in a scenario,where you like I actually want to learn,more about whats in the literature in a,given topic maybe its a new topic maybe,its a topic where there isnt a lot of,data to date it follows very similar,procedures as a systematic review and,its kind of like under the umbrella,there are rapid reviews which are just,like a systematic review done quickly,which makes you ask yourself why dont,why dont we all just do rapid reviews,we can talk more about that Cochrane,systematic reviews is that its done,its done under the auspices of the,Cochrane collaborative group and then a,meta-analysis so such an important,teaching point not all systematic,reviews lead to meta-analysis and then,theres Network meta-analysis one of,those overkill and then theres,individual patient data meta analyses,even more overkill for an introductory,talk so heres the blurring narrative,review by some hack authors included Im,just kidding theyre my good friends,okay and this was not a systematic,review we had an idea and we wrote about,it and CMHA did not reject us but there,was nothing systematic about it we did,this quickly and we did this by,reviewing studies that we were aware of,not through a systematic process so in,the world of research synthesis there,are all reviews thats like the one I,just sort of showed you and then a,subset or systematic reviews some of,those systematic reviews go on to a,meta-analysis and then a very small,subset are individual patient data meta,analyses if anyone is that interested,about this we can talk about in the,question in the answer period so why,bother okay well if you have a good,question trust me this can be a very,high-impact paper if you have a timely,topic like coded 19 for example you have,to have topics with multiple studies if,you only have a topic with one,conversation theres nothing to,systematically,whew and sometimes when theres,conflicting results that can be helpful,as well and before I go on I should,mention this is the Cochran logo,apparently he sort of like both of these,what look like sees are supposed to be,like the globe the earth were all in,this together and this middle line is,the line of nul effect this point,estimate here is actually from the first,study of steroid use among women who are,pregnant and in delivering you know,prematurely and it showed that steroids,reduced the risk of various respiratory,outcomes among newborns so if the point,estimate is to the left of this line in,this case its a benefit and if its to,the right of line its harm and then you,can see there are some studies where it,seemed to cross the line another study,crossed the line another one another one,another one showed benefit and then,another one seemed like it was you know,right on the null effect and the first,one of the first ever met analyses by,Archie Cochrane was in this field and,this beautiful diamond reflects the,overall estimate synthesized together,this meta-analysis as a result of,showing that steroids are truly helpful,for women who are delivering prematurely,has saved the lives of millions and,millions of babies so kind of a cool,story of course you gotta weigh the,risks and the benefits of anything in,medicine and anything in research so,lets see who else is on the line okay t,GH TMR thats Keith you know so Keith,has to be careful keith has to not be,tempted when I email them and say hey,Keith we should do the systematic review,and meta-analysis because its a lot of,work and the risk of being scooped is,very real ie somebody beating you up to,the punch line speaking of being scooped,myself and me were gonna study ace and,ARB and risk of bad outcomes in covent,19 oh my gosh we thought it was such a,unique idea theres been five,publications so thats thats,being scooped alright so lets talk,about some types of systematic reviews,so a unfortunates cannot quite blurry,but heres an example just a descriptive,systematic review this group wanted to,look at covent 19:00 and smoking and,they reviewed what was described about,this association theres been a lot of,really misleading reports that suggest,that smoking is protective of course,that is not the case smoking is,associa
Intro to Systematic Reviews & Meta-Analyses
hi in this video were going to talk,about meta-analyses and systematic,reviews now systematic reviews sit atop,the evidence-based medicine,pyramid you can see here because they,represent the strongest form of evidence,that we have and the way these are,constructed is by taking individual,studies which we had looked at before,looking at individual studies and now,you take them all and you combine them,into one review now why would you want,to do systematic review what may perhaps,you have a complex issue that has many,different papers that are done on it you,want to look at all of them in one place,and come up with conclusions or perhaps,you want to increase the precision each,one of these papers may have a smaller,sample size and so it has it doesnt,have good precision meaning its,confidence intervals are huge and you,want to increase that so by taking a,bunch of them you can put them all,together and get a bigger pooled sample,size and increase the precision or,perhaps theres a lot of discrepancies,in the literature so maybe you have some,studies that are for a particular,therapy and others that are against it,and so you want to you want to take a,definitive look at all of them up come,up with a conclusion now theres,different ways that you can come up with,these overviews and the first one is,called a narrative review and in a,narrative review an author will take a,bunch of these papers theyll just pick,you know pick a bunch of them and,theyll read them review them and then,come up with their conclusions now these,are pretty good they look at a bunch of,different studies so its better than,looking at one paper but theres no real,process by which these are the papers,are selected so there could be bias in,there why did the author pick these,perhaps they pick the ones that were,only in line with what they were,thinking with their own conclusions and,so they pick things that supported their,conclusions these are often good for for,getting answers to background questions,and theyre good for a brief overview,but theyre not there theyre definitely,prone to bias now a systematic review,you dont just pick any articles you,have a system by which you pick them,thats why its called systematic you go,to the literature in a systematic way,and you get all the articles and so that,process exists and anyone who does that,process would get the same bunch of,articles then theres a systematic way,by which,you evaluate the individual articles in,a systematic way that you combine them,all into one and make your conclusions,now meta-analysis its a subset of,systematic reviews and these are the,ones where you would take the data from,each individual studies and then pull,them all together and then evaluate that,so before we look at how to evaluate a,systematic review lets look at how you,would do one itll itll make it make a,little bit more sense so lets say you,have an author here who has a particular,question about the literature now that,question needs to be formulated in a,nice tight and focused way and the best,way you want to define that question you,can use the Pico method right with,patients,the particular patients to find the,intervention the comparison and the,outcome we need to be sure that we are,asking a question that is focused you,cant ask in all treatments for mi does,it help right you need to know is it,different between cardiac Caths,versus TPA versus medical treatment but,you also dont want it to be too focused,like you cant see Im only looking at,47 year-old left-handed people who have,a heart attack it has to be,generalizable and so you want to have a,question that is not too broad but not,too focused and Goldilocks question the,other thing you also need to do is you,need to identify your inclusion and,exclusion criteria from the start so if,youre going to go to the literature we,need to know which articles were going,to look at are we going to include older,people maybe we dont want to look at,people who are 75 or older or dont want,to look at people who are 18 and younger,maybe we dont want to look at studies,outside of the United States maybe we,dont want to look at that we do want to,look at those but you need to decide on,that from the start,before you go searching the literature,because this is one way to avoid bias,now the next thing that were going to,do is were going to conduct a,literature search so Ive depicted the,literature here is this big cloud with a,bunch of papers in it theres a lot of,things that you need to look at and so,we want to look at as many of these,papers as possible and so where is the,place that most of us will go well,well go to PubMed and we will look at,MEDLINE and so thats the first place,that were going to look as redline but,our other databases that exist for,example EMBASE is the European version,of MEDLINE theres also a database of,systematic reviews by the Cochrane,Collaboration called the Cochrane,Library and thats another great place,to look but what about stuff that is not,in one of those databases how are you,going to find those perhaps you want to,look at something that are in the,smaller journals that has not included,in these catalogs or even unpublished,research maybe theres a study that had,no effect it showed it was a negative,study and those dont tend to get,published and so perhaps its just,sitting in the desk drawer of a,researcher somewhere and so wed like to,include that or maybe there are some,trials that are currently going on right,now and so they havent been published,yet or maybe there are abstracts that,have been presented at conferences,theres a lot more information that we,want to look at so you want to do a full,literature search you need to look at,all of these places but how are you,going to find these if theyre not,specified in here well the best thing we,can do is to ask an expert you know when,you get when you go to MEDLINE and you,find the one author whose name seems to,appear and on all the papers ask them do,you know of any other some other studies,that are done perhaps in a smaller,Journal or perhaps others that are not,published and they can help you find,more more of these studies you can also,look in the references of the articles,that you pulled and so that will help,broaden your your your list that youre,going to look at so now that youve,defined your database you also have to,also define your search terms that,youre going to look for and do your,literature search and then youre going,to go ahead and pull the articles so,after having supplied the search terms,you get a bunch of articles and you,first start by reading the abstracts and,applying the inclusion and the exclusion,criteria,perhaps we said were only going to look,at articles that took place in the,United States from the year 2004 word,and so one of them was from 1996 he,would get rid of that one theres,another one from 2003 but it was in,Canada maybe you want to get rid of that,one and so then you decide which ones,you want to keep,or not and so this person might say it,okay look I want to keep that one I,dont want to keep that one I want to,keep this one but how – how do we know,that this person wouldnt introduce bias,when they look at these well the trick,there is you want to have multiple,reviewers doing this so lets say this,person looks at the article and this,person looks at this article if they,both say keep it you keep it if they,both say get rid of it you get rid of it,but what if theres disagreement what if,one says keep and one says get rid of it,well then you have a third person thats,a tiebreaker who can decide whether or,not we need to keep that article so we,would pull the articles read the,abstract apply the inclusion and,exclusion criteria and then the next,step is to actually read the articles,now we go back and go into the other,ones that met the first pass now you,read them again and you decide which,ones continue to meet our inclusion and,exclusion criteria and again were going,to use the mu
Systematic review vs meta-analysis | What’s the difference?[Music],you may ask what is the difference,between a systematic review and a,meta-analysis,or is a systematic review the same as a,meta-analysis,in this video ill explain both of these,concepts,by using an example,well start with what is a systematic,review a researcher may study the,effectiveness of balance exercises after,an ankle sprain on the time it takes to,go back to football practice,the research team will analyze the,results by comparing the time taken to,return to practice between the group who,did the balance exercises and the group,who did no home exercises at all,and then theyll publish their findings,in an academic journal,this study is referred to as a primary,or empirical study,over time many researchers and research,groups generate new knowledge by,performing similar primary studies,worldwide,therefore,there may be more than one study that,investigate for example the,effectiveness of balance exercises after,an ankle sprain,these primary studies may be done on,different populations lets say some in,adolescent football players either,female football players maybe others in,hockey players,university students and so on,then one day a group of researchers with,a special interest in balance exercises,well come along and realize that there,are so many primary studies on the,effectiveness of balance exercises that,they decide to do a systematic review,the research group will then take all,these primary studies and using a very,systematic process to summarize the,findings into one research paper,they will put together a systematic,review,then lets get to what is a,meta-analysis,the research group who conducted the,systematic review may do a meta-analysis,as part of the systematic review,a meta-analysis is done by taking the,results from each of the primary studies,pooling these results together and,re-analyze them to look at the,effectiveness of balance exercises,across all studies,a meta-analysis cant always be done to,do a meta-analysis the primary studies,that,are being pulled together need to be,similar enough to one another,or in some cases the primary studies,consist of qualitative data where for,example interviews were done with,participants in which case no,statistical analysis can be done,let me know whether this explanation,makes sense to you by leaving a comment,in the comment box below this video,and also if you have any other questions,please ask and lets see how we can help,each other navigate this systematic,review journey together,how do you know whether youre dealing,with a systematic review or a systematic,review with a meta-analysis,youll often see the title of the,publication states whether its a,systematic review or a systematic review,and meta-analysis although it doesnt,always feature in the title so sometimes,youll have to read the abstract to,figure out that theres a statistical,analysis done if its not apparent from,the abstract you can scroll down to the,full paper,and have a look at the methods section,and the results section to see if a,statistical analysis were done,to summarize a systematic review refers,to the summary of primary studies into,one study using rigorous and systematic,methods while a meta-analysis refers to,the statistical analysis used to pull,all the findings from the different,primary studies into one analysis,not all systematic reviews include a,meta-analysis but all meta-analyses are,part of systematic reviews,if you have any questions around,systematic reviews see if you can find,the answer amongst the videos in the,systematic review playlist on the,research masterminds youtube channel or,feel free to ask a question by posting,it in the comment box below this video,see you on the other side of this,exciting systematic review journey,if you found this video helpful smash,the like button for more useful tips to,boost your research experience subscribe,to my channel by clicking the subscribe,button below this video,and while youre at it hit the bell so,that you get notified whenever i produce,a new video,if you need a solution to a challenge,not yet covered on my channel leave a,comment in the box below see you in the,next video