- Peer Review in 3 Minutes
- What is the history of peer review? Why is peer review still important?
- The Importance of Peer Review
- What is Peer Review?
- The Problem With Peer Review – Eric Weinstein | The Portal Podcast Clips
- Peer Review Definition: Why Peer Review Is Important In Science? – Getting Peer Feedback On Papers
- Feedback and peer review
Peer Review in 3 Minutes
Scholarly articles.,Academic articles.,Peer reviewed articles.,You may have heard these terms used by your professor,,but what do they mean?,Essentially,these are all different ways of describing the same thing:,research articles that have been published in scholarly journals.,But what is a research article,,and how does it get published in a scholarly journal?,First of all, the article reports a scholars research practice and findings.,And, its written with an audience of other researchers in mind.,Finally, in order to be published and accepted by the scholarly community,,the article must pass several quality tests.,The most important of these tests is called peer review.,We can get a better understanding of the role of peer review,if we look at the academic publishing process as a whole.,Lets imagine a researcher,who wants to share a discovery with the academic community.,To do this,,he writes a draft article describing his research and findings,and submits it for publication in a scholarly journal.,Heres where the article has to pass its first test:,The journals editor reads over the article to decide,whether its a good fit for her journal.,If it is, she sends copies of the article to a group of experts,to evaluate the articles quality,,in a process called “peer review”.,This is the articles second, and most important, test.,These experts are the authors “peers”,,since they are working in the same research area.,And since they are making a judgment about the article,,theyre sometimes called referees –,so peer reviewed articles are sometimes called “refereed articles”.,Each reviewer evaluates the article,by asking questions to judge the quality and significance of the research.,Questions like,,”What is this research about?”,”Is it interesting?”,”Is it important?”,”Is the methodology sound?”,”Are the conclusions logical?”,and “Are the findings original?”,Based on the answers to these questions,,the reviewers decide whether the article is worthy of publication in the journal.,They then make a recommendation to the editor –,either approve the article for publication, or reject it.,Even if they recommend publishing the article,,they usually expect the author to make revisions.,The editor, however, makes the final determination,whether the article should be approved, rejected, or revised.,Rejection is common, though.,The most prestigious journals are very selective about the articles they publish,,so they tend to have high rejection rates:,some journals reject more than 90% of the submissions they receive.,From the time the researcher first submits his draft article,to the time it is finally published,,several months – or years – may have elapsed.,Once the journal is published,,it is made available to subscribers,,which are usually university libraries,,because individual subscriptions are very expensive,,often hundreds or thousands of dollars a year.,By the way, like all established systems,,the peer review system has its critics,,and scholars continue to think about how,the peer review process might be improved.,The library has tools to help you find peer reviewed research.,If you want to know more about the peer review process,or need help finding peer reviewed articles,,ask a librarian for help!
What is the history of peer review? Why is peer review still important?
Hello, everyone. This is Emily and welcome to this uni-edit video.,What is the history of peer review?,Peer-review as we know it today dates back to 1967 when the term was first,used in the United States.,According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, peer review is a process by which,something proposed as for research or publication is evaluated by a group of,experts in that field.,Prior to 1967, and for most of the history of scientific journals, the,journal editor made most of the decisions regarding the selection review,and evaluation of suitable manuscripts.,According to Fife, journal editors such as Norman Locklear, the founding editor,of Nature, sometimes sought the opinions of their connections in the scientific,community which highlighted the limitations of relying on the judgment,of a single scholar.,To limit the potential for bias, the Royal Society in London introduced,editorial regulations in 1752 by setting up a committee of papers to evaluate,contributions presented at the Societys meetings for possible publication. This,committee had to reach its decision collectively, and therefore, implemented a,voting system.,Around the same time, the Académie Royale de Sciences in Paris appointed small,committees made up of paid academics to investigate and assess the merits of,inventions and discoveries by non academics and to report back in writing.,Both of these systems ensured that more than one person was involved in the,decision-making process and that expert judgment was sought as well.,The early 19th century saw the start of the practice as we now recognize as,peer-review. Over a hundred years before the term peer review was born, the Royal,Society, among other learned societies in London,,started to seek reports from referees to ensure more expertise in the editorial,decision-making process.,Refereeing quickly became a part of the publication process at learned societies,and by the mid 19th century George Gabriel Strokes, secretary of the Royal,Society in 1854 to 1885, had developed the practice of sharing referees,suggestions with the authors and guiding authors on how to respond. In the late,20th century, refereeing was rebranded as peer review and has remained unchanged,for the best part of 50 years.,Once again, this is Emily from uni-edit, We hope you enjoyed the tip and,have a wonderful day!
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The Importance of Peer Review
hey everyone Emily right here and Im,gonna be talking about the importance of,peer review and feedback for your,writing now its a scary thing to put,your work out there and have other,people read what you do but it is vital,it is important when youre writing at,your story whether its a novel a short,story anything it is so ingrained in,your head that the way you perceive it,is so different than how others will,perceive it theyll catch things that,you would never be able to see theyll,be like why why is this character doing,this or this is this seems like a,pothole to me or this is kind of,confusing but if theyre confused then,that means that you didnt do a good job,of explaining that character and those,things are vital when it comes to your,writing and in addition to getting,feedback on your actual story its,really important to make connections,with other writers having that support,system as well as those links to other,people who can introduce you to other,people is also vital it also really,helps to keep you motivated if youre,sitting alone in your office and you are,writing and you feel like youre doing,it alone and no ones reading your work,its really really discouraging so then,once theyve read your stuff and they,love it and they like it and they give,you all this feedback it encourages you,to keep going so then what do you do,with that feedback once people get it,back to you well you want to take in as,much as you can read through it and let,it sit for for a day or two to think is,this helpful information are they right,do I agree with them is there a common,theme does everyone think this,characters motivation is a little,confusing if a lot of people think that,same thing that means that theyre,probably right and you have something to,fix now you dont have to take all,feedback because at the end of the day,it is your story so you dont want to,have other people write up for you you,dont want to have your first 5 pages,basically be written by someone else,wrote a whole new sentence for you,because they thought it sounded better,and now you have these weird fragment,and sentences that dont really make,sense and they dont flow and you dont,agree with them but because someone else,told you to do it you did it and now it,doesnt really work so you want to be,careful of that sort of thing too so,feedback can be good but you also just,have to know when to implement it how do,you find these people well theres a,community out there that feels the same,way as you who also wants this help you,just have to find them the the writing,community on Twitter is a great place to,start and right now throughout the next,couple of weeks of May you can sign up,for camp Rev Pitt which is a great,resource put on by the people at revise,and resubmit passes and then just fund,prompts and games to get get you excited,with what your storys about to find it,search the hashtag camp rub pit on,Twitter and youll find so many,resources you go to the website and you,click on the forms that you want to sign,up for so you you could just get a query,you could just get a positivity pass,theres also going to be five cabins,where writers are just going to be a,part of it to have a conversation about,where their work and what their what,theyre doing and Im really excited to,be a camp counselor in one of those,cabins to help keep this motivation up,because that is so important when it,comes to the writing community you can,go and fill up the forms by May 9th of,2020 and you will be matched with a,partner to get your pages or query or,whatever you need to critique so this is,just a great resource to get in touch,with other writers and to make some,friends,so again just search for hashtag camp,wrap it if it if youre watching this,video past the event just keep active,with the Twitter community any sort of,writing community that youre a part of,keep trying to get that feedback because,it is vital and you need to do it if you,want to be a published author so just,put your name out there put your work,out there put it into the world I know,its scary but its very important that,you do that if you want to follow my,journey and see how my venture and,theyre getting published is doing good,follow me on twitter at by emily rea i,have an instagram facebook or my website,by emily Raycom so keep in touch I love,being evolve with the writing community,and if you want any feedback just let me,know Im happy to meet people and read,their pages too I love doing swap so,reach out to me and Ill see you later
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What is Peer Review?
What is peer review?,Have you heard the term peer review,and wondered what this means?,Peer review is a ,quality control process,,where an authors scholarly work,or research is scrutinised,by experts in the same field.,The process is designed to,ensure that published works are valid,,original, and of high quality.,Because of this, peer reviewed articles,convey a level of trust,and value to the audience.,So, how does the peer review process work?,It can vary, but,the process generally looks like this.,An author begins by submitting a paper for publication,in a peer reviewed journal.,The journals editor assembles,a panel of experts from,the relevant field and invites them,to evaluate and comment on the paper.,Each of these reviewers carefully reads,the paper and prepares their review comments.,The reviews are then returned to the editor,,each with a recommendation to accept, reject,,or make changes to the paper and resubmit.,On the basis of all the reviews.,the editor then decides whether or not to,publish the paper as,an article in the journal.,Finally, the author is,advised of the outcome,and, if successful,,the paper is published in the journal.,At uni, you may be asked to use,peer reviewed articles in your assessments.,So, how do we,identify a peer reviewed article?,First, note that,peer reviewed articles,are sometimes called,refereed articles or even,scholarly or academic articles.,So you should remember these alternate terms.,Start by limiting your,database search to peer reviewed.,Do this by clicking,the relevant checkbox on,the search or results screen.,However, not all databases,will have this feature.,You can also check if the journal is,described as a peer reviewed journal.,To do this, look up,the journals official website or find,a current copy of the journal and,check its publication information.,Another way to identify,a peer reviewed article is to look,for these features which are usually,found in peer reviewed articles:,scholarly and technical language,,abstract or summary,,methodology,,results,,key recommendations or conclusion,,references,,authors academic affiliations,,no advertising.,So, does the peer review process,guarantee that the published ,information is correct?,Unfortunately not.,It is an important part,of the scholarly process,,but peer reviewers cannot possibly check,every aspect of the original work,or redo the research.,So incorrect or,flawed information can be overlooked.,However, the peer review process,helps to strengthen the,credibility of information so that,the research can be taken seriously.
The Problem With Peer Review – Eric Weinstein | The Portal Podcast Clips
peer review is a cancer from outerspace,it came from the biomedical community it,invaded science the old system because I,have to say this because many people who,are now professional scientists have an,idea that peer review has always been in,our literature and it absolutely, has not I send the revised,version two experimental gerontology,they send it out for review as you know,review is blind you dont know who your,reviewers are but you can often tell who,they are its not as obscure dependants,a small field,yeah so they read the acknowledging,acknowledgments of my paper which are,now on alert about Carol I have to thank,her in the paper for the work she did,but Im now on alert that shes gone,strange on the subject matter of this,paper and so Ive broken her out,separately in the acknowledgments I,dont want to be as gracious to her,because shes being hostile to me right,I dont want to not acknowledge her so I,acknowledge her separately experimental,gerontology then I am 99% sure sends the,paper to her as the reviewer she pans it,absolutely brutal critiques just pages,and pages and pages of them they are not,high-quality critiques I could go,through every single one of whether this,is a podcast no I cant do it here but I,could have that no I didnt know what to,do because she was in line for a Nobel,Prize that was well understood I didnt,want to accuse a leading light of the,field of okay this is exactly where I,got angry either at the beginning of the,podcast you no no offense you were,in line for a Nobel Prize you didnt I,mean Im sorry there is an aspect of,this about giving away your power even,though youve even a cumulus you dont,even have a PhD is Im just saying at,the time if you mentioned her name yeah,would say yeah her Nobel Prize is one of,these years right,so my point was I was in the awkward,position I didnt understand what I was,supposed to do I didnt want to send,back a review that said I dont know who,the person is who reviewed this but they,dont understand the material and all of,critiques suck because I didnt want to,accuse somebody who was that powerful of,getting heres the problem what do you,do you dont actually have evidence in,the hard right form where like you have,got videotape but on the other hand,these are small worlds this all of this,is preposterous right so I sit on the,review for too long not knowing what you,dont know I dont know how to handle,you know Im sorry but like I have no,advisor your advisor was not equipped,for the modern era,he wasnt equipped for the modern era he,wasnt equipped for molecular biology,thats true I finally settle on a,strategy that I can live with and I send,back a note I send back the review and,my note says I dont know why but the,this entire list of critiques is not,high quality if you would like to point,me to any of the critiques in this list,that you would like me to address I am,more than happy to do it,but I dont think it makes sense to,address the entire list and as I recall,it I hit Send on the email and within,minutes maybe it was an hour I got back,a response your paper has been accepted,for publication which blew me away,because thats no sense,according to regular protocol right it,makes no sense because clearly theyre,supposed to send it out for review the,review were supposed to say whether its,supposed to get published if you were,said it shouldnt be published I said I,refuse to address these critiques unless,you ask me to the editors have,overridden the reviewer they understood,the reviews were cruddy they needed me,to say that in order to justify the move,that they wanted to make they knew the,paper was good and the review was crap,so they effectively overrode normal peer,review was my paper peer reviewed well,it was by the editors who were expert,but let me jump in peer review is a,cancer from outer space it came from the,biomedical community it invaded science,the old system because I have to say,this because many people who are now,professional scientists have an idea,that peer review has always been in,literature and it absolutely, has not right okay it used,to be that the editor of a journal took,responsibility for the quality of the,journal which is why we had things like,nature crop up in the first place,because they had courageous,knowledgeable forward-thinking editors,and so I just want to be very clear,because there is a mind virus out there,that says peer review is the cynic wand,on of scientific excellence yada yada,yada and if,you dont believe me go back and learn,that this is a recent invasive problem,in the sciences recent invasive problem,that has no justification for existing,in light of the fact not only does it,have no justification for existing when,Watson and Crick did the double helix,and this is the cleanest example we have,the paper was agreed should not be sent,out for review because anyone who was,competent would understand immediately,what its implications were there are,reasons that great work cannot be,peer-reviewed furthermore you have,entire fields that are existing now with,electronic archives that are not peer,reviewed peer review is not peer review,it sounds like peer review it is peer,injunction it is the ability for your,peers to keep the world from learning,about your work keep the world from,learning about your work because peer,review is what happens real peer review,is what happens after youve passed the, thing called peer review,yes,[Music],you,[Music]
Peer Review Definition: Why Peer Review Is Important In Science? – Getting Peer Feedback On Papers
hello well this is dr. Dave Maass like,talking to you about reciprocity calm,the Eenie is written with a three and in,this particular video I actually wanted,to talk to you about the peer-review,process and give you kind of a,definition of the peer-review process,and then get into why peer review is,actually really important for science so,this is part of my nerd out Wednesday,series this is stuff so if you dont,know Im actually a professor of,innovation strategy in entrepreneurship,and this is stuff where I just talk,about on every Wednesday Ive been,talking about things that I find,interesting in science and in fact I was,so infatuated with this particular topic,the whole peer review process I thought,Id try to create some sort of web,platform where it was kind of like a,sharing economy proof reading platform,where it was very similar to what was,going on with a peer-review process I,think it works amazingly well and it,does an amazing job sort of vetting the,vetting your work right so Im gonna get,into first of all define what the,peer-review process is and then finally,get into why its important and then you,know maybe sort of describe how it,generally works you know its different,and its pretty unique in terms of what,actually happens in each sort of,peer-reviewed article in each journal,that you send it to theres definitely,lots of differences but this is kind of,generally the way that things work at,least thats what I kind of know at this,moment so one is a peer-review process,that is so the peer review process is,where so you as a scientist have a,really cool research idea and you write,it up in a paper so you find some,evidence you read it up in a paper it,doesnt necessarily have to be empirical,evidence it could be just a really cool,idea and you send it off to a particular,article or a particular journal and then,when that happens the the idea gets,vetted by both an editor at the journal,and as,as some blind reviewers that dont know,who you are and you dont know who they,are,so this external audience the reviewers,the peer reviewers are generally very,they are very conservative,they are extremely knowledgeable with,the thing that they you are being that,youre investigating so the editor is,going to send it to people that are very,knowledgeable they understand what,youre doing they are somebody that is,then that is you know theres not that,many people in this world that,understand what youre doing but they,will find the editor will find those,people and send it to those particular,people and they will give their sort of,two cents on whether they prefer the,idea and if they dont prefer the idea,where are some issues that they think,are you know what are the main issues,with a particular idea and it could be,anywhere from like you know a half a,page to even five pages Ive seen in,terms of their comments that they can,write down the reviewers will write down,tremendous amount of information what,theyre trying to do is just pick apart,the Flies but then if they are a very,good reviewer what theyre trying to do,is actually help you develop that,particular idea even more so I would,even consider this as important and a,lot of people dont necessarily,emphasize this as much but I would,consider this entire process as,important if not more important than the,whole scientific process itself or the,scientific method itself you know the,whole idea of coming up with hypotheses,and testing those hypotheses and then,publishing or getting that that,information out there well this whole,process of some skeptical people that,dont know really know who you are that,are very knowledgeable and that theyre,going to critique your idea is is is is,very important for the whole process so,this would even it would be so important,that you probably dont necessarily to,some degree doesnt have to be sort of,scientific in in in fact a lot of,qualitative research for example is,not necessarily they dont follow this,sort of scientific norm or they would go,and you know hypothesize what whats,going on in the world sort to do this,deductive science but they would go and,they would kind of ask people you know,what their insights are and then they,draft up the insights from that,qualitative research so with that,particular dimension or that particular,way of doing research,it wouldnt doesnt necessarily fit the,scientific method all that well so the,the thing that sort of saves them is,actually through the review process and,improves the sciences through the review,process so normally when you do this,whole process and again the the,reviewers are extremely conservative and,they are very very knowledgeable and,they are if theyre very good reviewers,theyre gonna be constructive so they,are going to help you out as much as you,possibly as much as they possibly can,theres Ill get into you know why that,is in a moment but basically the whole,process you know how does the whole peer,review process work well you send it,there Im you send it to the journal the,journal editors will send it to a so the,editors could be an associate editor,theyre called and then those people,send it to reviewers the reviewers will,then they will they will go through the,process and theyll read your paper and,then theyll come up with different,critiques and once they do that theyll,either recommend to the editor whether,they should reject the article whether,they should you know go through major,revisions with the article could be also,called minor revision sometimes but most,the time you can get major revisions you,can also get you know maybe it is a,conditional accept where they will say,yeah this is good but you have to do a B,and C you know theres a bunch of sort,of different criteria you can go through,but generally its kind of or different,sort of check marks that they could do,but generally its going to be either,you go through you know they either say,accept or,you know do whats called a revise and,resubmit and then theyll send it back,to the editor the editor will then the,associate editor or the editor will go,through and theyll say you know these,reviewers are really like whats going,on cuz theyll theyll be sent out to,maybe you know at the minimum one,reviewer but thats not ideal at all but,generally itll be two to three even,four reviewers you know could even be,more than that some journal articles,Ive seen I want to say like American,Journal of sociology has this really,unique process where they will first,send it to a set of reviewers might be,wrong in the journal but I theyll send,it first to a set of three reviewers and,then theyll youll go and do those,revisions and then youll have to send,it back in and theyll send it to,another three set of reviewers and so,what thats doing it is adding an extra,safeguard and it is really being very,rigorous in the science and and theyll,pick apart all these different issues,right so the reviewers itll be sent to,three different reviewers and the,editors will sort of synthesize that,material and theyll say okay well the,reviewers seem to like this and Ill,give it a chance or wont give it a,chance and then well ask for a revision,or theyll say you know the reviewers,dont really like whats going on so,were gonna have to reject it and then,theyll reject that article and you,cant send it back in to that and you,cant send the same article back into,the same in into the same journal its,just not part of the scientific norm you,can but there is sort of reciprocity,that happens within the scientific,community and that they all kind of know,who you are,and it is necessary that you dont,necessarily burn the sort of credits or,credentials that you have thats why the,whole reciprocity platform is are set up,in the way that its set up if you check,it out but really what it is is you know,we have a certain amount of sort of sort,of credibility that we have,and if it gets rejected then we should,send it someplace else you know but but,the editor can also say yes I li
Feedback and peer review
the chances are that youve encountered,some form of peer review before either,in your academic life or perhaps in a,work or school context the reason for,this is that peer review works and thus,educators are keen to reap its benefits,for their students,if youve participated in peer review,before youve probably witnessed these,benefits firsthand in this video Im,going to talk about some of the reasons,why peer review will make you a better,writer but firstly I should explain what,peer review is peer review involves some,sort of evaluation of your work by,people of a similar level or at a,similar stage of their studies if you,are new to peer review you might be,asking yourself well whats in it for me,what can I possibly get from feedback,from someone who only knows as much or,maybe even less about a topic than I do,myself perhaps the idea of giving and,receiving feedback from your peers is,something that you feel uncomfortable,about and another thing students I may,also often worry about their own ability,to provide useful feedback to their,fellow students of course all these,reactions are valid but receiving and,responding to feedback from your peers,can be invaluable to your own,development as a writer yes your peers,are probably not likely to be as,experienced at giving feedback as your,teachers but the more sets of eyes you,can get on your own work and the more,feedback from different perspectives the,better sometimes we as writers are up so,close and personal to our own writing,that we can fail to see the wood for the,trees in other words we might miss the,bigger picture such as how the essay,fits together as a whole because we are,so focused on the details equally its,very easy to be blind to mistakes in our,own texts mistakes that a second reader,will pick up easily you should bear in,mind though that a peer reviewer should,not do the job of proof reader for you,your text is your responsibility and if,you proofread your own text carefully,before handing it over your peer,reviewer will find it much easier to,comment on the text itself one of the,trickiest things about writing is see,our Techs from the perspective of the,audience since its literally impossible,to get outside of our own heads all,language is about transmitting a message,to a receiver and your peer reviewer can,help you to evaluate how successful this,process of transmission has been without,the need for a brain transplant for,instance your reviewer will help you to,see if there are any parts of the text,that dont make sense,or if theres any terms that need to be,more carefully defined peer review can,also help provide the motivation that,you need to get writing in the first,place,producing drafts for peer review is one,way to keep writing projects on track,writing can be a lonely activity,sometimes but the peer review process,can provide you with a ready-made,support group there are other people out,there who are going through similar,struggles to your own when it comes to,receiving feedback from your peers its,important to think carefully about how,you will use the comments that you get,ultimately you are the author of your,essay and its up to you to carefully,evaluate feedback and think about what,changes you will make as a result if,youre not used to receiving feedback,when youre writing it can be something,of an uncomfortable experience some,people tend to take feedback on their,writing personally but its important to,remember that criticism on your writing,is not criticism of you as a person and,even experienced writers can sometimes,produce bad texts when it comes to,receiving feedback think carefully about,each comments and ask yourself what you,will do with it if you choose not to act,on a particular piece of feedback,reflect on why this is the case peer,review usually involves texts in,progress and this is of course where,feedback can be most useful to you,because when it comes to peer review,were not talking about the finished,product its inevitable that there will,be some aspects of the text that you as,the author are not 100% happy about I,understand that this can be a particular,challenge for perfectionists handing,over an unfinished piece of writing for,review can be a daunting prospect but,understanding why the peer review,process is so useful,your development as a writer can help to,overcome some of these anxieties I,wanted to save the best thing about peer,review until last perhaps you have,worries about the quality of the,feedback that you might get or maybe you,doubt the value of receiving feedback,from students you may have even less,experience of the writing process than,you do yourself well as far as I see it,these issues dont actually detract from,the main benefit of the peer review,process and this is in developing your,own critical and evaluative capacities,there is plenty of research to suggest,that ask the reviewer you gain just as,much if not more than the review II if,you learn what to look for in the essays,of others youll be much better equipped,to evaluate your own writing also one of,the most effective ways of learning is,to explain a concept to someone else if,you can successfully explain the,problems with someone elses essay and,suggest possible solutions to fix these,problems you can be sure that you,properly understand the principles of,academic writing yourself